TITLE 7               HEALTH

CHAPTER 27     EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES

PART 11               SUPPLEMENTAL LICENSING PROVISIONS

 

7.27.11.1               ISSUING AGENCY:  New Mexico Department of Health, Epidemiology and Response Division, Emergency Medical Systems Bureau.

[7.27.11.1 NMAC - Rp, 7.27.11.1 NMAC, 8/15/14]

 

7.27.11.2               SCOPE:  These rules apply to New Mexico emergency medical services, including the service directors and medical directors of those services; approved New Mexico EMS training programs and graduates of approved New Mexico EMS training programs; New Mexico licensed EMS personnel including those previously licensed; persons trained, certified or licensed in another state or territory seeking to acquire licensure in New Mexico; EMS licensing commission; national registry of emergency medical technicians; and any other entity associated with the licensing of emergency medical services personnel in New Mexico.

[7.27.11.2 NMAC - Rp, 7.27.11.2 NMAC, 8/15/14]

 

7.27.11.3               STATUTORY AUTHORITY:  These rules are promulgated pursuant to the following statutory authorities: 1) the New Mexico Department of Health Act, Subsection E of Section 9-7-6 NMSA 1978, which authorizes the secretary of the department of health to “make and adopt such reasonable and procedural rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the duties of the department and its divisions,” and; 2) the Emergency Medical Services Act, NMSA 1978, Section 24-10B-4 (“Bureau; duties”).

[7.27.11.3 NMAC - Rp, 7.27.11.3 NMAC, 8/15/14]

 

7.27.11.4               DURATION:  Permanent.

[7.27.11.4 NMAC - Rp, 7.27.11.4 NMAC, 8/15/14]

 

7.27.11.5               EFFECTIVE DATE:  August 15, 2014, unless a later date is cited at the end of a section.

[7.27.11.5 NMAC - Rp, 7.27.11.5 NMAC, 8/15/14]

 

7.27.11.6               OBJECTIVE:  These rules are intended to supplement the emergency medical services licensure requirements for emergency medical services personnel, to provide supplemental and additional standards for the licensure of emergency medical dispatchers, emergency medical dispatch-instructors, emergency medical services first responders and emergency medical technicians, and to assist in the provision of a comprehensive system of emergency medical services in the state of New Mexico.

[7.27.11.6 NMAC - Rp, 7.27.11.6 NMAC, 8/15/14]

 

7.27.11.7               DEFINITIONS:

[Refer to 7.27.2.7 NMAC]

 

7.27.11.8               SCOPES OF PRACTICE FOR LICENSED EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES PERSONNEL:

                A.            Medical director means a physician functioning as the service EMS medical director as defined and described in 7.27.3 NMAC, Medical Direction for Emergency Medical Services.  Medical control means supervision provided by or under the direction of a physician.

                B.            Prior to approving a new skill, technique, medication, or procedure, it shall be documented by the service director, medical director, or approved EMS training institution that the EMS provider has been appropriately trained to perform those new skills, techniques, medications, or procedures.

                C.            Service medical director approved:  All service medical director approved skills, techniques, medications, or procedures are considered advanced life support.  Prior to utilizing any skill, technique, medication or procedure designated as service medical director approved, it shall be documented by the service director, medical director, or approved EMS training institution that the EMS provider has been appropriately trained to administer the medications or perform the skills, techniques, medications or procedures. Additionally, each EMS provider must have a signed authorization from the service’s medical director on file at the EMS service’s headquarters or administrative offices.

                D.            Any device in an EMS agency’s treatment guideline/protocol designed and utilized to facilitate successful completion of a skill or other treatment modality, including but not limited to CPR devices, intraosseous placement devices, and positive pressure ventilation devices, must be approved by the service medical director.

                E.            Wilderness protocols:  The following skills shall only be used by providers who have a current wilderness certification from a bureau approved wilderness caregiver course, who are functioning in a wilderness environment as a wilderness provider (an environment in which time to a hospital is expected to exceed two hours, except in the case of an anaphylactic reaction, in which no minimum transport time is required), and are authorized by their medical director to provide the treatment:

                    (1)     minor wound cleaning and management;

                    (2)     cessation of CPR;

                    (3)     field clearance of the cervical-spine;

                    (4)     reduction of dislocations resulting from indirect force of the patella, digit, and anterior shoulder.

                F.            Community emergency medical services programs:  Community EMS programs shall be provided by EMS caregivers who, after completing a bureau approved community EMS caregiver course, are functioning as part of a community emergency medical services program that has been reviewed and approved by the EMS bureau.  The providers must be authorized by their medical director to perform the skills listed in their application as part of the community EMS program.  These programs may include referrals that involve transport to non-hospital locations, and for non-transport decisions.  Skills and interventions may include any of the approved skills and interventions for the appropriate level; any skill that exceeds the scope of practice must be approved through the special skill process. Skills may include, but are not limited to:

                    (1)     education of patients in self-medication administration, and assessment of compliance with physician recommendations for health conditions;

                    (2)     assessments for preventing falls and other sources of injury by identifying risks in patient homes;

                    (3)     provide education on disease prevention;

                    (4)     administering immunizations;

                    (5)     in collaboration with a healthcare team, assist in developing a care plan, and educate the patient in following the care plan;

                    (6)     perform in home patient assessments commensurate with level of education and licensure in order to provide information to a care team as to the progress or condition of a patient receiving therapies for medical conditions;

                    (7)     provide assistance in locating and contacting appropriate providers of needed social services;

                    (8)     treat discovered acute healthcare issues, transporting to emergency department if necessary;

                    (9)     for chronic and non-acute issues, confirmed with online medical direction and agreed to by the patient, options other than EMS transport may be considered, including:

                              (a)     arrange for non-emergent and non-EMS transportation to and care at an appropriate facility, such as a physician’s office or urgent care center;

                              (b)     provide referral information and arrange for follow up by appropriate care team members and/or social service personnel;

                    (10)     assist with ongoing prescribed wound care.

                G.            Critical Care Transport services skills: Paramedic critical care transport skills shall be used only by paramedic providers who have successfully completed a bureau approved critical care transport paramedic or critical care flight paramedic course.  Subsequent to completing the approved course, the critical care paramedic must successfully complete a bureau administered or approved third party exam within one year.  Additionally, the paramedics shall be functioning as part of a ground or air EMS agency with an approved critical care transport special skill and authorized by the agency medical director to utilize these skills.  Critical care transport program skills are only authorized for use during inter-facility critical care transport activities, with the exception of air ambulance agencies providing emergency scene response; or ground critical care agencies requested to a scene by the local authorized and certified 911 response and transport agencies.  Critical care transport special skills and medications that may be administered include, but are not limited to any of the below skills and medications; service specific skills and medication requests must be listed on the EMS agency critical care transport special skill application completed per 7.27.11.10 NMAC:

                    (1)     monitoring of infusions including but not limited to anti-arrhythmics, nitrates, vasopressors, blood products, thrombolytics, sedation, pain management and antihypertensive medications that have required titration within the past two hours and may need to have their dosages adjusted during transport;

                    (2)     performance of skills not listed in the paramedic scope of practice, such as but not limited to escharotomy, fasciotomy, insertion of chest tubes, pericardiocentesis, blood administration, and nerve blocks;

                    (3)     administration of medications, initiation of infusions, and utilization of routes, not listed on the paramedic scope but requested in the EMS agency’s special skill application and approved by the medical direction committee and EMS bureau;

                    (4)     utilization of advanced patient monitoring, such as invasive hemodynamic monitoring via monitoring of central venous pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, intracranial pressure monitoring, Swan-Ganz catheters, arterial lines, fetal monitoring, point of care lab values, and other monitoring or tests not listed in the paramedic scope, but requested in the EMS agency’s special skill application and approved by the medical direction committee and EMS Bureau;

                    (5)     utilization of ICU level ventilator support, to include ventilators delivering positive end expiratory pressure, with multiple adjustable mode and setting parameters that include inspiratory plateau pressures, pressure regulated volume control, pressure support ventilation, pressure control ventilation, airway pressure release ventilation and others; also, any ventilator delivering a mixture of nitric oxide or other beneficial gas mixtures;

                    (6)     transport of patients with intra-aortic balloon pump, temporary internal cardiac pacing, left ventricular assist device or a bi-ventricular assist device and other appropriate devices to address hemodynamic instability as requested in the EMS agency’s special skill application and approved by the medical direction committee and EMS bureau;

                    (7)     administer paralytics and sedatives to maintain airway control previously initiated, and administer and perform rapid sequence airway pharmacology and techniques in order to secure an airway in response to patient condition, as requested in the EMS agency’s special skill application and approved by the medical direction committee and EMS bureau;

                    (8)     pediatric intubation or endotracheal tube management as requested in the EMS agency’s special skill application and approved by the medical direction committee and EMS bureau.

                H.            Utilization of pharmacological agents for the primary purpose of sedation, induction, or muscle relaxation to facilitate placement of an advanced airway requires medical direction committee special skills approval.

                I.             Over the counter (OTC) medications and products. A physician medical director may approve a list of over the counter (OTC) medications and products (i.e. NSAID's, antihistamines, anti-diarrheal, laxatives, antacids, vitamin supplements, hygiene products and other products) for distribution by an EMS caregiver working under medical direction to a requesting individual during scheduled stand-by situations.  Examples are long-term wildfire responses, public events (concerts, rodeos, etc), various industry situations such as movie production & ski patrol, long-term construction & manufacturing projects, long-term search and rescue or tactical operations, and other situations where scheduled stand-by EMS is provided.

                    (1)     The OTC medication/product must be properly labeled in individual dose packaging when distributed to the patient.  Distribution from a bulk or multi-dose container is not permitted by this scope of practice, as well as other state and federal laws and regulations; medications will be distributed per manufacturer recommendations and labeling directions.

                    (2)     The agency/EMS caregiver will maintain a written guideline that contains the list of physician approved OTC medications/products and the conditions for which they may be distributed.  Specific dosing information and indications for pediatric patients must be included.

                    (3)     The EMS agency/EMS caregiver must develop a method of documentation for the appropriate distribution of the OTC medications/products.  This documentation shall include the OTC medication documentation and appropriate patient care report, per 7.27.10.12 NMAC (Records and Data Collection) and 7.27.11.11 NMAC.  PRC certified ambulance agencies shall complete patient care documentation per 18.3.14.24 NMAC.

                    (4)     OTC medications/products are distributed for the patient’s self-administration and use.  EMS caregivers will not administer OTC medications/products, unless approved elsewhere in the scope of practice for specific EMS patient care situations.

                J.             Licensed emergency medical dispatcher (EMD).

                    (1)     Medical direction is required for all items in the EMD scope of practice.

                    (2)     The following allowable skills may be performed by EMDs who are licensed by the EMS bureau and functioning with an EMS bureau certified New Mexico emergency medical dispatch agency utilizing protocols and any EMD priority reference system approved by the EMS bureau and service medical director.

                              (a)     Process calls for medical assistance in a standardized manner, eliciting required information for evaluating, advising, and treating sick or injured individuals, and dispatching an appropriate EMS response.

                              (b)     Provide pre-arrival instructions to the patient through the caller when possible and appropriate to do so while functioning in compliance with an emergency medical dispatch priority reference system (EMDPRS).

                K.            EMS first responders (EMSFR).

                    (1)     The following allowed drugs may be administered and skills and procedures may be performed without medical direction:

                              (a)     basic airway management;

                              (b)     use of basic adjunctive airway equipment;

                              (c)     suctioning;

                              (d)     cardiopulmonary resuscitation, according to current ECC guidelines;

                              (e)     obstructed airway management;

                              (f)     bleeding control via direct pressure and appropriate tourniquet use;

                              (g)     spine immobilization;

                              (h)     splinting (does not include femoral traction splinting);

                              (i)     scene assessment, triage, scene safety;

                              (j)     use of statewide EMS communications system;

                              (k)     emergency childbirth;

                              (l)     glucometry;

                              (m)     oxygen;

                              (n)     other non-invasive procedures as taught in first responder courses adhering to DOT curricula.

                    (2)     The following require service medical director approval:

                              (a)     allowable skills:

                                        (i)     mechanical positive pressure ventilation utilizing a device that may have controls for rate, tidal volume, FiO2, and pressure relief/alarm and does not have multiple automatic ventilation modes;

                                        (ii)     application and use of semi-automatic defibrillators, including cardiac rhythm acquisition for ALS caregiver interpretation or transmission to a care facility; this includes multi-lead documentation;

                                        (iii)     hemostatic dressings for control of bleeding;

                                        (iv)     insertion of laryngeal and supraglottic airway devices (examples: king airway, LMA), excluding multi-lumen airways);

                              (b)     administration of approved medications via the following routes:

                                        (i)     nebulized inhalation;

                                        (ii)     nasal mucosal atomization (MA);

                                        (iii)     intramuscular;

                                        (iv)     oral (PO);

                              (c)     allowable drugs:

                                        (i)     oral glucose preparations;

                                        (ii)     aspirin PO for adults with suspected cardiac chest pain;

                                        (iii)     atropine and pralidoxime via IM auto-injection for treatment of chemical or nerve agent exposure;

                                        (iv)     albuterol (including isomers) via inhaled administration;

                                        (v)     naloxone via nasal mucosal atomizer;

                                        (vi)     epinephrine via auto-injection device;

                              (d)     patient’s own medication that may be administered:

                                        (i)     bronchodilators using pre-measured or metered dose inhalation device;

                                        (ii)     naloxone, if provided with a nasal MA or IM delivery system.

                L.            EMT-BASIC (EMT-B):

                    (1)     The following allowed drugs may be administered and skills and procedures may be performed without medical direction:

                              (a)     basic airway management;

                              (b)     use of basic adjunctive airway equipment;

                              (c)     suctioning;

                              (d)     cardiopulmonary resuscitation, according to current ECC guidelines;

                              (e)     obstructed airway management;

                              (f)     bleeding control to include appropriate tourniquet usage;

                              (g)     spine immobilization;

                              (h)     splinting;

                              (i)     scene assessment, triage, scene safety;

                              (j)     use of statewide EMS communications system;

                              (k)     childbirth (imminent delivery);

                              (l)     glucometry;

                              (m)     oxygen;

                              (n)     other non-invasive procedures as taught in EMT-B courses adhering to DOT curricula;

                              (o)     wound management.

                    (2)     The following require service medical director approval:

                              (a)     allowable skills:

                                        (i)     mechanical positive pressure ventilation utilizing a device that may have controls for rate, tidal volume, FiO2, and pressure relief/alarm and does not have multiple automatic ventilation modes;  this skill includes devices that provide non-invasive positive pressure ventilation via continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP);

                                        (ii)     use of multi-lumen, supraglottic, and laryngeal airway devices (examples:  PTLA, combi-tube, king airway, LMA) to include gastric suctioning;

                                        (iii)     application and use of semi-automatic defibrillators, including cardiac rhythm acquisition for ALS caregiver interpretation or transmission to a care facility; this includes multi-lead documentation;

                                        (iv)     acupressure;

                                        (v)     transport of patients with nasogastric tubes, urinary catheters, heparin/saline locks, PEG tubes, or vascular access devices intended for outpatient use;

                                        (vi)     performing point of care testing; examples include serum lactate values, cardiac enzymes, electrolytes, and other diagnostic values;

                                        (vii)     hemostatic dressings for control of bleeding;

                              (b)     administration of approved medications via the following routes:

                                        (i)     nebulized inhalation;

                                        (ii)     subcutaneous;

                                        (iii)     intramuscular;

                                        (iv)     nasal mucosal atomization (MA);

                                        (v)     oral (PO);

                                        (vi)     intradermal;

                              (c)     allowable drugs:

                                        (i)     oral glucose preparations;

                                        (ii)     aspirin PO for adults with suspected cardiac chest pain;

                                        (iii)     activated charcoal PO;

                                        (iv)     acetaminophen PO in pediatric patients with fever;

                                        (v)     atropine and pralidoxime via IM autoinjection for treatment of chemical and/or nerve agent exposure;

                                        (vi)     albuterol (including isomers), via inhaled administration;

                                        (vii)     ipratropium, via inhaled administration, in combination with or after albuterol administration;

                                        (viii)     naloxone by SQ, IM, or IN route;

                                        (ix)     epinephrine, 1:1000, no single dose greater than 0.3 ml, subcutaneous or intramuscular injection with a pre-measured syringe (including autoinjector) or 0.3 ml TB syringe for anaphylaxis or status asthmaticus refractory to other treatments;

                              (d)     patient’s own medication that may be administered:

                                        (i)     bronchodilators using pre-measured or metered dose inhalation device;

                                        (ii)     sublingual nitroglycerin for unrelieved chest pain, with on line medical control only;

                                        (iii)     situations may arise involving patients with uncommon conditions requiring specific out of hospital administered medications or procedures; family members or the designated caregiver trained and knowledgeable of the special needs of the patient should be recognized as the expert regarding the care of the patient;  EMS can offer assistance in airway management appropriate to their level of licensure, and administer the patient’s prescribed medications where appropriate only if the medication is in the EMS provider’s scope of practice; EMS services are not expected to provide the prescribed medications for these special needs patients;

                    (3)     Immunizations and biologicals:  Administration of immunizations, vaccines, biologicals, and TB skin testing is authorized under the following circumstances:

                              (a)     to the general public as part of a department of health initiative or emergency response, utilizing department of health protocols; the administration of immunizations is to be under the supervision of a physician, nurse, or other authorized health provider;

                              (b)     TB skin tests may be applied and interpreted if the licensed provider has successfully completed required department of health training;

                              (c)     in the event of a disaster or emergency, the state EMS medical director or chief medical officer of the department of health may temporarily authorize the administration of pharmaceuticals or tests not listed above.

                M.           EMT-INTERMEDIATE (EMT-I):

                    (1)     The following allowed drugs may be administered and skills and procedures may be performed without medical direction:

                              (a)     basic airway management;

                              (b)     use of basic adjunctive airway equipment;

                              (c)     suctioning;

                              (d)     cardiopulmonary resuscitation, according to ECC guidelines;

                              (e)     obstructed airway management;

                              (f)     bleeding control including appropriate use of tourniquet;

                              (g)     spine immobilization;

                              (h)     splinting;

                              (i)     scene assessment, triage, scene safety;

                              (j)     use of statewide EMS communications system;

                              (k)     childbirth (imminent delivery);

                              (l)     glucometry;

                              (m)     oxygen;

                              (n)     wound management.

                    (2)     The following require service medical director approval:

                              (a)     allowable skills:

                                        (i)     mechanical positive pressure ventilation utilizing a device that may have controls for rate, tidal volume, FiO2, and pressure relief/alarm and does not have multiple automatic ventilation modes;  this skill includes devices that provide non-invasive positive pressure ventilation via continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP);

                                        (ii)     use of multi-lumen, supraglottic, and laryngeal airway devices (examples: PTLA, combi-tube, king airway, LMA) to include gastric suctioning;

                                        (iii)     application and use of semi-automatic defibrillators, including cardiac rhythm acquisition for ALS caregiver interpretation or transmission to a care facility; this includes multi-lead documentation;

                                        (iv)     acupressure;

                                        (v)     transport of patients with nasogastric tubes, urinary catheters, heparin/saline locks, PEG tubes, or vascular access devices intended for outpatient use;

                                        (vi)     peripheral venous puncture/access;

                                        (vii)     blood drawing;

                                        (viii)     pediatric intraosseous tibial access;

                                        (ix)     adult intraosseous access;

                                        (x)     point of care testing; examples include serum lactate values, cardiac enzymes, electrolytes, and other diagnostic values;

                                       (xi)     hemostatic dressings for control of bleeding;

                              (b)     administration of approved medications via the following routes:

                                        (i)     intravenous;

                                        (ii)     nasal mucosal atomization (MA);

                                        (iii)     nebulized inhalation;

                                        (iv)     sublingual;

                                        (v)     intradermal;

                                        (vi)     intraosseous;

                                        (vii)     endotracheal (for administration of epinephrine only, under the direct supervision of an EMT-paramedic, or if the EMS service has an approved special skill for endotracheal intubation);

                                        (viii)     oral (PO);

                                        (ix)     intramuscular;

                                        (x)     subcutaneous;

                              (c)     allowable drugs:

                                        (i)     oral glucose preparations;

                                        (ii)     aspirin PO for adults with suspected cardiac chest pain;

                                        (iii)     activated charcoal PO;

                                        (iv)     acetaminophen PO in pediatric patients with fever;

                                        (v)     IM autoinjection of the following agents for treatment of chemical or nerve agent exposure: atropine, pralidoxime;

                                        (vi)     albuterol (including isomers) via inhaled administration;

                                        (vii)     ipratropium, via inhaled administration in combination with or after albuterol administration;

                                        (viii)     naloxone;

                                        (ix)     I.V. fluid therapy (except blood or blood products);

                                        (x)     dextrose;

                                        (xi)     epinephrine (1:1000), SQ or IM (including autoinjector) for anaphylaxis and known asthmatics in severe respiratory distress (no single dose greater than 0.3 cc);

                                        (xii)     epinephrine (1:10,000) in pulseless cardiac arrest for both adult and pediatric patients; epinephrine may be administered via the endotracheal tube in accordance with most current ACLS and PALS guidelines;

                                        (xiii)     nitroglycerin (sublingual) for chest pain associated with suspected acute coronary syndromes; must have intravenous access established prior to administration or approval of online medical control if IV access is unavailable;

                                        (xiv)     morphine, fentanyl, or dilaudid for use in pain control with approval of on-line medical control;

                                        (xv)     diphenhydramine for allergic reactions or dystonic reactions;

                                        (xvi)     glucagon, to treat hypoglycemia in diabetic patients when intravenous access is not obtainable;

                                        (xvii)     anti-emetic agents, for use as an anti-emetic only;

                                        (xviii)     methylprednisolone for reactive airway disease/acute asthma exacerbation;

                                        (xix)     Hydroxycobalamine;

                                        (xx)     lidocaine (2%, preservative and epinephrine free for IV use) for administration into the intraosseous space on pain responsive adult patients while receiving intraosseous fluids or medications;

                              (d)     patient’s own medication that may be administered:

                                        (i)     bronchodilators using pre-measured or metered dose inhalation device;

                                        (ii)     sublingual nitroglycerin for unrelieved chest pain; must have intravenous access established prior to administration or approval of online medical control if IV access is unavailable;

                                        (iii)     glucagon;

                                        (iv)     situations may arise involving patients with uncommon conditions requiring specific out of hospital administered medications or procedures; family members or the designated caregiver trained and knowledgeable of the special needs of the patient should be recognized as the expert regarding the care of the patient; EMS can offer assistance in airway management appropriate to their level of licensure, IV access, and the administration of the patient’s prescribed medications where appropriate only if the medication is in the EMS provider’s scope of practice; online (direct contact) medical control communication must be established with the medical control physician approving the intervention; EMS services are not expected to provide the prescribed medications for these special needs patients;

                              (e)     drugs allowed for monitoring during interfacility transport:

                                        (i)     potassium; intermediate EMT’s may monitor IV solutions that contain potassium during transport (not to exceed 20 mEq/1000cc or more than 10 mEq/hour);

                                        (ii)     antibiotics and other anti-infectives utilizing an infusion pump; intermediate EMT’s may monitor antibiotic or other anti-infective agents, provided a hospital initiated infusion has been running for a minimum of 30 minutes prior to the intermediate initiating the transfer, and the intermediate EMT is aware of reactions for which to monitor and the appropriate action to take before assuming responsibility for patient care;

                              (f)     immunizations and biologicals:  administration of immunizations, vaccines, biologicals, and TB skin testing is authorized under the following circumstances:

                                        (i)     to the general public as part of a department of health initiative or emergency response, utilizing department of health protocols; the administration of immunizations is to be under the supervision of a physician, nurse, or other authorized health provider;

                                        (ii)     administer vaccines to EMS and public safety personnel;

                                        (iii)     TB skin tests may be applied and interpreted if the licensed provider has successfully completed required department of health training;

                                        (iv)     in the event of a disaster or emergency, the state EMS medical director or chief medical officer of the department of health may temporarily authorize the administration of pharmaceuticals or tests not listed above.

                N.            EMT-PARAMEDIC (EMT-P):

                    (1)     The following allowed drugs may be administered and skills and procedures may be performed without medical direction:

                              (a)     basic airway management;

                              (b)     use of basic adjunctive airway equipment;

                              (c)     suctioning;

                              (d)     cardiopulmonary resuscitation, according to current ECC guidelines;

                              (e)     obstructed airway management;

                              (f)     bleeding control including the appropriate use of tourniquet;

                              (g)     spine immobilization;

                              (h)     splinting;

                              (i)     scene assessment, triage, scene safety;

                              (j)     use of statewide EMS communications system;

                              (k)     childbirth (imminent delivery);

                              (l)     glucometry;

                              (m)     oxygen;

                              (n)     wound management.

                    (2)     The following require service medical director approval:

                              (a)     allowable skills:

                                        (i)     mechanical positive pressure ventilation utilizing a device that may have controls for rate, tidal volume, FiO2, and pressure relief/alarm and has multiple automatic ventilation modes;  this skill includes devices that provide non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (including continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bi-level positive airway pressure (BPAP);

                                        (ii)     use of multi-lumen, supraglottic, and laryngeal airway devices (examples: PTLA, combi-tube, king airway, LMA) to include gastric suctioning;

                                        (iii)     transport of patients with nasogastric tubes, urinary catheters, heparin/saline locks, PEG tubes, or vascular access devices intended for outpatient use;

                                        (iv)     application and use of semi-automatic defibrillators;

                                        (v)     acupressure;

                                        (vi)     peripheral venous puncture/access;

                                        (vii)     blood drawing;

                                        (viii)     I.V. fluid therapy;

                                        (ix)     direct laryngoscopy for endotracheal intubation and removal of foreign body in patients 13 and older; for patients 12 and under, for removal of foreign body only;

                                        (x)     endotracheal intubation for patients over the age of 12;

                                        (xi)     thoracic decompression (needle thoracostomy);

                                        (xii)     surgical cricothyroidotomy;

                                        (xiii)     insertion of nasogastric tubes;

                                        (xiv)     cardioversion and manual defibrillation;

                                        (xv)     external cardiac pacing;

                                        (xvi)     cardiac monitoring;

                                        (xvii)     use of infusion pumps;

                                        (xviii)     initiation of blood and blood products with on-line medical control;

                                        (xix)     intraosseous access;

                                        (xx)     performing point of care testing; examples include serum lactate values, cardiac enzymes, electrolytes, and other diagnostic values;

                                        (xxi)     hemostatic dressings for control of bleeding;

                                        (xxii)     vagal maneuvers.

                              (b)     administration of approved medications via the following routes:

                                        (i)     intravenous;

                                        (ii)     nasal mucosal atomization (MA);

                                        (iii)     nebulized inhalation;

                                        (iv)     sublingual;

                                        (v)     intradermal;

                                        (vi)     intraosseous;

                                        (vii)     endotracheal;

                                        (viii)     oral (PO);

                                        (ix)     intramuscular;

                                        (x)     topical;

                                        (xi)     rectal;

                                        (xii)     IV drip;

                                        (xiii)     subcutaneous;

                              (c)     allowable drugs:

                                        (i)     acetaminophen;

                                        (ii)     activated charcoal;

                                        (iii)     adenosine;

                                        (iv)     albuterol (including isomers);

                                        (v)     amiodarone;

                                        (vi)     aspirin;

                                        (vii)     atropine sulfate;

                                        (viii)     benzodiazepines;

                                        (ix)     calcium preparations;

                                        (x)     corticosteroids;

                                        (xi)     dextrose;

                                        (xiii)     diphenhydramine;

                                        (xiv)     epinephrine;

                                        (xv)     furosemide;

                                        (xvi)     glucagon;

                                        (xvii)     hydroxycobalamine;

                                        (xviii)     ipratropium;

                                        (xix)     lidocaine;

                                        (xx)     magnesium sulfate;

                                        (xxi)     naloxone;

                                        (xxii)     narcotic analgesics;

                                        (xxiii)     nitroglycerin;

                                        (xxiv)     oral glucose preparations;

                                        (xxv)     oxytocin;

                                        (xxvi)     phenylephrine nasal spray;

                                        (xxvii)     pralidoxime, IM auto-injection for treatment of chemical and  nerve agent exposure;

                                        (xxviii)     anti-emetic agents, for use as an anti-emetic only;

                                        (xxix)     sodium bicarbonate;

                                        (xxx)     thiamine;

                                        (xxxi)     topical anesthetic ophthalmic solutions;

                                        (xxxii)     vasopressor agents;

                                        (xxxiii)     intravenous fluids

                    (3)     Drugs allowed for monitoring during inter-facility transports (initiated and administered by the sending facility with defined dosing parameters and requiring an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion unless otherwise specified); the infusion may be terminated by the paramedic if appropriate, but if further adjustments are anticipated, appropriate hospital personnel should accompany the patient, or a critical care transport unit should be utilized:

                              (a)     potassium (no infusion pump needed if concentration not greater than 20mEq/1000cc;

                              (b)     anticoagulation type blood modifying agents (such as fibrolytic drugs, heparin, glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitors/antagonists);

                              (c)     procainamide;

                              (d)     mannitol;

                              (e)     blood and blood products (no pump required);

                              (f)     aminophylline;

                              (g)     antibiotics and other anti-infective agents;

                              (h)     dobutamine;

                              (i)     sodium nitroprusside;

                              (j)     insulin;

                              (k)     terbutaline;

                              (l)     norepinephrine;

                              (m)     octreotide;

                              (n)     nutritional supplements;

                              (o)     beta blockers;

                              (p)     calcium channel blockers;

                              (q)     nesiritide;

                              (r)     propofol in patients that are intubated prior to transport;

                              (s)     proton pump inhibitors and H2 antagonists;

                              (t)     crotalidae polyvalent immune fab (ovine) (“crofab”)  crofab may be monitored during inter-facility transport provided the physician initiated crofab infusion has been running for a minimum of 30 minutes prior to the paramedic initiating the transfer and assuming responsibility for patient care.

                    (4)     Immunizations and biologicals:  administration of immunizations, vaccines, biologicals, and TB skin testing is authorized under the following circumstances:

                              (a)     to the general public as part of a department of health initiative or emergency response, utilizing department of health protocols; the administration of immunizations is to be under the supervision of a physician, nurse, or other authorized health provider;

                              (b)     administer vaccines to EMS and public safety personnel;

                              (c)     TB skin tests may be applied and interpreted if the licensed provider has successfully completed required department of health training;

                              (d)     in the event of a disaster or emergency, the state EMS medical director or chief medical officer of the department of health may temporarily authorize the administration of other pharmaceuticals or tests not listed above.

                    (5)     Skills approved for monitoring in transport:

                              (a)     internal cardiac pacing;

                              (b)     chest tubes.

                    (6)     Medications for administration during patient transfer:

                              (a)     retavase (second dose only);

                              (b)     protamine sulfate;

                              (c)     non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents in patients that are intubated prior to transport;

                              (d)     acetylcysteine;

                    (7)     Patient’s own medication that may be administered:

                              (a)     epoprostenol sodium, treprostinil sodium, or other medications utilized for certain types of pulmonary hypertension;

                              (b)     bronchodilators using pre-measured or metered dose inhalation device;

                              (c)     sublingual nitroglycerin for unrelieved chest pain; must have intravenous access established prior to administration;

                              (d)     glucagon;

                              (e)     situations may arise involving patients with uncommon conditions requiring specific out of hospital administered medications or procedures; family members or the designated caregiver trained and knowledgeable of the special needs of the patient should be recognized as the expert regarding the care of the patient; EMS can offer assistance in airway management appropriate to their level of licensure, IV access, and the administration of the patient’s prescribed medications where appropriate only if the medication is in the EMS provider’s scope of practice; online (direct contact) medical control communication must be established with the medical control physician approving the intervention; EMS services are not expected to provide the prescribed medications for these special needs patients.

[7.27.11.8 NMAC - Rp, 7.27.11.8 NMAC, 8/15/14]

 

7.27.11.9               APPROVED TRAINING PROGRAMS:  “Approved emergency medical services training program” means a New Mexico emergency medical services training program that is sponsored by a post-secondary educational institution, is accredited by the national accrediting organization for emergency medical services or active in the accreditation process, and is approved by the joint organization on education (JOE) and participates in the joint organization on education. Currently, there are five approved EMS training programs.

                A.            Emergency medical services academy.  University of New Mexico, (700 Camino De Salud NE., Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106, Tel: 505-272-5757). The EMS academy is designated as the lead training agency for providers in New Mexico as stated in Section 24-10B-12 NMSA 1978. The EMS academy teaches formal EMS education courses including EMS first responder, EMT-basic, EMT-intermediate, and EMT-paramedic.

                B.            Dona Ana branch community college.  New Mexico state university, (Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003-000 1 ,Tel: 505-527-7530). Dona Ana branch community college teaches formal EMS education courses including EMS first responder, EMT-basic, EMT-intermediate, and EMT-paramedic.

                C.            Eastern New Mexico university.  EMS program, (Box 6000, Roswell, NM 88202-6000, Tel: 505- 624-7000). The eastern New Mexico university teaches formal EMS education courses including EMS first responder, EMT-basic, EMT-intermediate, and EMT-paramedic.

                D.            Central New Mexico community college.  EMS program, (525 Buena Vista Rd. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87106, Tel: 505-224-4000). Central New Mexico community college teaches formal EMS education courses including EMS first responder, EMT-basic, EMT-intermediate, and EMT-paramedic.

                E.            San Juan college EMS Program. (4601 College Blvd; Farmington, NM  87402; 505-566-3857).  San Juan College conducts formal EMS education courses including EMS first responder, EMT-basic, EMT-intermediate, and EMT-paramedic.

[7.27.11.9 NMAC - Rp, 7.27.11.9 NMAC, 8/15/14]

 

7.27.11.10             SPECIAL SKILLS APPLICATION AND REPORTING PROCEDURES:

                A.            Purpose:  Special skills are those skills, procedures, and medications that are requested by an EMS service to enhance emergency treatment capabilities beyond the normal scope of practice, as defined in the Emergency Medical Services Act.  Use the enclosed procedures for application, reporting and renewal for special skills. Applications are reviewed and approved or disapproved by the medical direction committee, and once approved, become a legally recognized addition to the service capabilities.

                B.            General:  All levels of EMS personnel, including licensed EMS first responders and all levels of licensed EMTs are eligible for special skills consideration for any procedure, skill or medication.

                C.            Application procedure:  The EMS service medical director, or his designee, shall coordinate with the EMS service director, and shall apply for special skills to the EMS medical direction committee.

                D.            Application document:  The application document for a special skill must be tailored to the level of the request. While the degree of detail in each section may vary to match the nature of the skill requested, all applications should include the following elements, in order:

                    (1)     application cover page: titled to state the requested special skill, date of application, name of service, service director name and medical director name;

                    (2)     contact information page: must include address and contact information for the service, service director and medical director;

                    (3)     letters of support: must include individual letters of support from the service director and medical director; additional letters of support from the local medical community or evidence of notification of the local medical community may be required; the need for letters of notification and support from the local medical community and who provides the letters must be adjusted to match the nature of the special skill requested;

                    (4)     service description: provide a concise description of the EMS service; this includes such items as basic call demographics relevant to the applicant, level of licensure of providers and names and locations of the primary receiving medical facilities;

                    (5)     description of the special skill: provide a description of the procedure, medication or requested skill; include information on risks, benefits, indications and contraindications;

                    (6)     justification and statement of need: provide a statement explaining why the special skill is needed; this should include a description of the current medical intervention or alternative practice to the special skill and a risk or benefit analysis that supports the special skill requested; the estimated number of potential interventions per year, other relevant statistical data and a statement indicating the level of current scientific information/studies to support the requested special skill; the level of scientific justification can be adjusted to match the level of the special skill requested;

                    (7)     protocol: provide a copy of the treatment protocol; include other operational protocols relevant to the special skill, if applicable;

                    (8)     training: provide a training syllabus; this must include learning objectives and the training hours for initial and continuing education; this section should also include a description of the instructors, how training will be completed, and a description of the method used to initially evaluate the skill; once initial training is completed, a list of trained and approved personnel shall be provided to the medical direction committee; these special skill authorized licensed EMS personnel must  appear on the service’s personnel list on the New Mexico EMS tracking and reporting system database.

                    (9)     QA/QI program:  provide a description of the QA/QI process for the special skill, including frequency of evaluation, names and qualifications of the personnel involved in the process; include a copy of the evaluation tool or forms that will be used, if applicable; and

                    (10)     the application and all supporting documentation shall be submitted to the EMS bureau, attn: state EMS training coordinator.

                E.            Applicants may involve the EMS regional offices when preparing a special skill request and include a letter evidencing regional review. Applicants shall forward a copy of their application to their EMS regional office when completed.

                F.            Upon receipt, the state EMS medical director and state EMS training coordinator will review the application. The service will be notified if the application is found to be incomplete or to contain significant errors.

                G.            Applications must be received at the bureau at least 45 days prior to the next regularly scheduled medical direction committee meeting to be placed on the agenda of that meeting for consideration by the medical direction committee.

                H.            The medical direction committee shall take action on all special skills applications on the agenda at their regularly scheduled meeting. The medical direction committee may take the following actions on the application: approved with limitations or restrictions, denied or tabled with a request for a formal presentation or additional information by the requesting service medical director or their designee.

                I.             The medical direction committee may give an approval subject to specific conditions, limitations or restrictions. This may include a written and practical examination.

                J.             Within 10 working days following the decision of the medical direction committee, the state EMS training coordinator shall provide a written response to the applicant regarding the action of the medical direction committee.

                K.            Special skills may not be utilized until receipt of the special skill approval letter from the bureau. Any specific conditions or limitations will be evidenced in the approval letter from the bureau.

                L.            Monitoring:  It is expected that EMS services with approved special skills will continuously comply with the requirements of their application and approval letter. This includes, but is not limited to, such items as training curricula, approved instructors, quality assurance, protocols and data collection. Any changes to the approved application shall be sent to the state EMS training coordinator for concurrence/coordination with the medical direction committee.

                M.           The medical direction committee may immediately suspend or revoke special skill privileges for an individual or service that loses medical direction, or fails to comply with the stated requirements, or for any other reason to protect the health and welfare of the people of New Mexico.

                N.            If a new medical director assumes control of a service with an active special skill program, the bureau shall receive a letter of support from the new medical director within 30 days or the special skill approval may be withdrawn.

                O.            The service shall maintain a current list of all providers trained and approved to utilize the special skill. This list must be provided to the bureau upon request.

                P.            Reporting:  The service shall provide to the state EMS training coordinator periodic written special skill reports. During the first year, the report shall be due semi-annually, occurring on June 1 and December 1. Subsequent reports shall be due annually on June 1.

                Q.            Report document: The written special skill report shall include the following minimum elements:

                    (1)     report cover page: titled to state the special skill reported, date, name of service, service director and medical director;

                    (2)     contact information page: shall include address and contact information for the service, service director and medical director;

                    (3)     letters of support: must include individual letters of continued support from the service director and service medical director;

                    (4)     statistics and outcome data: provide data on the utilization and patient outcomes involving the special skill; do not include patient identifiers; all adverse outcomes related to the special skill must be reported;

                    (5)     continuing education: provide evidence of the continuing education program and refresher program;

                    (6)     personnel list: provide a list of all personnel authorized to perform the special skill; these special skill authorized licensed EMS personnel must appear on the service’s personnel list required for the New Mexico EMS tracking and reporting system database.

                    (7)     QA/QI program: provide evidence of the ongoing QA/QI program;

                    (8)     renewal: during a regularly scheduled meeting, the medical direction committee shall review all ongoing individual special skills programs on their three year anniversary and make a determination on renewal;

                    (9)     if the medical direction committee determines not to provide automatic renewal on an ongoing special skill program, the state EMS training coordinator shall provide a written notification to the service director and the service medical director within 10 working days; and

                    (10)     the special skills program will be placed on the agenda of the next, or subsequent, regularly scheduled meeting of the medical direction committee and final determination regarding renewal will be made.

                R.            Special skills programs will remain active until a final determination regarding renewal has been made.

                S.             Special skills application:

                    (1)     general section;

                    (2)     EMS service name;

                    (3)     address;

                    (4)     service chief/director;

                    (5)     contact phone number;

                    (6)     physician medical director;

                    (7)     physician/medical director contact phone number;

                    (8)     special skill proposed;

                    (9)     level of licensure necessary for special skill;

                    (10)     estimated number of personnel to be trained;

                    (11)     estimated date of initial training;

                    (12)     training/quality assurance;

                    (13)     describe or identify the curriculum, including learning objectives, training hours, etc.;

                    (14)     please identify the lead instructor and provide a brief summary of their qualifications or attach a resume;

                    (15)     resumes required for new instructors;

                    (16)     if training/experience is required, provide a letter of commitment from the supporting institution;

                    (17)     describe or attach a proposed continuing education plan;

                    (18)     attach a description of quality assurance plan, including periodic case reviews and ongoing problems;

                    (19)     identification and steps for remedial action if necessary;

                    (20)     signatures; person completing the application, service chief/service director and medical director;

                    (21)     submit 10 copies of the application in its entirety to: EMS bureau, state EMS training coordinator, (1301 Siler Rd., Building F, Santa Fe, NM 87507);

                    (22)     submit one copy to the regional office.

[7.27.11.10 NMAC - Rp, 7.27.11.10 NMAC, 8/15/14]

 

7.27.11.11             EMS PERSONNEL JOB DESCRIPTIONS:

                A.            Introduction:  The bureau is providing the following general position description for the New Mexico EMS provider positions for first responder, EMT-basic, EMT-intermediate, and EMT-paramedic. It is the ultimate responsibility of an employer to define specific job descriptions within each EMS service.

                B.            Qualifications:

                    (1)     successfully complete a recognized training course from an approved EMS training institution;

                    (2)     possess a valid course completion certificate, and accomplish all state licensure examination application requirements;

                    (3)     additionally, applicants shall meet all established requirements for initial licensing as identified by the current EMS licensure regulations;

                    (4)     a copy of these regulations is available through the EMS bureau;

                    (5)     generally, the knowledge and skills required demonstrate the need for a high school education or equivalent;

                    (6)     ability to communicate verbally; via telephone and radio equipment;

                    (7)     ability to lift, carry, and balance up to 125 pounds (250 pounds with assistance);

                    (8)     ability to interpret written, oral, and diagnostic form instructions;

                    (9)     ability to use good judgment and to remain calm in high-stress situations;

                    (10)     ability to work effectively in an environment with loud noises and flashing lights;

                    (11)     ability to function efficiently throughout an entire work shift;

                    (12)     ability to calculate weight and volume ratios and read small English print, both under life threatening time constraints;

                    (13)     ability to read and understand English language manuals and road maps;

                    (14)     accurately discern street signs and address numbers;

                    (15)     ability to interview patient, family members, and bystanders;

                    (16)     ability to document, in writing, all relevant information in a prescribed format;

                    (17)     ability to converse orally and in written form in English with coworkers and hospital staff as to status of patient;

                    (18)     good manual dexterity, with ability to perform all tasks related to the highest quality of patient care;

                    (19)     ability to assume a variety of postural positions to carry out emergency and non-emergency patient care, including light extrication; from crawling, kneeling, squatting, twisting, turning, bending, to climbing stairs and ladders, and the ability to withstand varied environmental conditions such as extreme heat, cold, and moisture; and

                    (20)     ability to work in low light, confined spaces and other dangerous environments.

                C.            Competency areas:

                    (1)     Licensed EMS first responder:  Must demonstrate competency handling emergencies utilizing all basic life support equipment and skills in accordance with all behavioral objectives of the approved New Mexico curriculum of first responder, to include the ability to demonstrate competency for all skills and procedures currently approved for the first responder, as identified by the current scope of practice document.

                    (2)     Emergency medical technician-basic:  Must demonstrate competency handling emergencies utilizing all basic life support equipment and skills in accordance with all behavioral objectives of the approved New Mexico curriculum of EMT-basic, and to include the ability to demonstrate competency for all skills and procedures currently approved for the EMT-basic, as identified by the current scope of practice document.

                    (3)     Emergency medical technician-intermediate:  Must demonstrate competency handling emergencies utilizing all basic life support and intermediate life support equipment and skills in accordance with all behavioral objectives of the approved New Mexico curriculum of EMT-intermediate, and to include the ability to demonstrate competency for all skills and procedures currently approved for the EMT-intermediate, as identified by the current scope of practice document.

                    (4)     Emergency medical technician-paramedic:  Must demonstrate competency handling emergencies utilizing all basic life support and advanced life support equipment and skills in accordance with all behavioral objectives of an approved New Mexico curriculum of EMT-paramedic, and to include the ability to demonstrate competency for all skills and procedures currently approved for the EMT-paramedic, as identified by the current scope of practice document.

                D.            Description of tasks for all EMS levels:

                    (1)     Receives call from dispatcher, responds verbally to emergency calls, reads maps, may drive emergency vehicle to emergency site, uses most expeditious route, and observes traffic ordinances and regulations.

                    (2)     Determines nature and extent of illness or injury, takes pulse, blood pressure, visually observes changes in skin color, auscultate breath sounds, makes determination regarding patient status, establishes priority for emergency care, may administer intravenous drugs or fluid replacement as authorized by level of licensure and scope of practice.

                    (3)     May use equipment and other devices and procedures as authorized by level of licensure and scope of practice.

                    (4)     Assists in lifting, carrying, and transporting patient to an ambulance and to a medical facility.

                    (5)     Reassures patients and bystanders and searches for medical identification emblem to aid in care.

                    (6)     Extricates patient from entrapment, assesses extent of injury, uses prescribed techniques and appliances, radio dispatcher for additional assistance or services, provides light rescue service if required and trained, provides additional emergency care following service established protocols.

                    (7)     Complies with regulations in handling deceased, notifies authorities, arranges for protection of property and evidence at scene.

                    (8)     Determines appropriate facility to which patient will be transported, report nature and extent of injuries or illness to the facility, asks for direction from hospital physician or emergency department staff.

                    (9)     Observes patient in route and administers care as directed by physician or service- established protocols.

                    (10)     Identifies diagnostic signs that require communication with facility.

                    (11)     Assists in removing patient(s) from ambulance and into emergency facility.

                    (l2)     Reports verbally, and in writing, observations about and care of patient at the scene, en-route to facility, and to the receiving facility.  Written reports shall be completed for all patient interactions, which include any visual, verbal, or physical patient contact, by the most appropriate EMS caregiver, whether or not the patient was transported to a facility, including patient refusals.

                    (13)     Provides assistance to emergency department staff as required.

                    (14)     Replaces supplies, sends used supplies for sterilization, checks all equipment for future readiness, maintains ambulance in operable condition, ensures ambulance cleanliness and orderliness of equipment and supplies, decontaminates vehicle interior, determines vehicle readiness by checking oil, gas, water in battery and radiator, and tire pressure, maintains familiarity with all specialized equipment.

[7.27.11.11 NMAC - Rp, 7.27.11.12 NMAC, 8/15/14]

 

HISTORY OF 7.27.11 NMAC:

 

History of Repealed Material:

7.27.11 NMAC, Supplemental Licensing Provisions (filed 12/17/2012) repealed 8/15/14.