TITLE 20             ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

CHAPTER 3        RADIATION PROTECTION

PART 4                 STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION

 

20.3.4.1                 ISSUING AGENCY:  Environmental Improvement Board.

[20.3.4.1 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.1 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.2                 SCOPE:  Except as specifically provided in other parts of this chapter, this part applies to persons licensed or registered by the department to receive, possess, use, transfer or dispose of sources of radiation. The limits in this part do not apply to doses due to background radiation, to exposure of patients to radiation for the purpose of medical diagnosis or therapy, to exposure from individuals administered radioactive material and released under Subsection I of 20.3.7.703 NMAC or to exposure from voluntary participation in medical research programs.

[20.3.4.2 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.1 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.3                 STATUTORY AUTHORITY:  Sections 74-1-9, 74-3-5 and 74-3-9 NMSA 1978.

[20.3.4.3 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.3 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.4                 DURATION:  Permanent.

[20.3.4.4 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.4 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.5                 EFFECTIVE DATE:  April 30, 2009, unless a later date is cited at the end of a section.

[20.3.4.5 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.5 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.6                 OBJECTIVE:

                A.            The requirements of this part establish standards for protection against ionizing radiation resulting from activities conducted pursuant to licenses or registrations issued by the department.

                B.            The requirements of this part are designed to control the receipt, possession, use, transfer and disposal of sources of radiation by any licensee or registrant so the total dose to an individual, other than background radiation, does not exceed the standards for protection against radiation prescribed in this part. However, nothing in this part shall be construed as limiting actions that may be necessary to protect public health and safety.

[20.3.4.6 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.6 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.7                 DEFINITIONS:

                A.            “Absorbed dose” means the energy imparted by ionizing radiation per unit mass of irradiated material. The units of absorbed dose are the gray (Gy) and the rad.

                B.            “Activity” means the rate of disintegration or transformation or decay of radioactive material. The units of activity are the becquerel (Bq) and the curie (Ci).

                C.            “Adult” means an individual 18 or more years of age.

                D.            “Airborne radioactive material” means any radioactive material dispersed in the air in the form of dusts, fumes, particulates, mists, vapors or gases.

                E.            “Airborne radioactivity area” means a room, enclosure or area in which airborne radioactive materials exist in concentrations:

                                (1)           in excess of the derived air concentrations (DAC) specified in table I of 20.3.4.461 NMAC; or

                                (2)           to such a degree that an individual in the area without respiratory protective equipment could exceed, during the hours an individual is present in a week, an intake of 0.6 percent of the annual limit on intake (ALI) or 12 DAC-hours.

                F.            “Air-purifying respirator” means a respirator with an air-purifying filter, cartridge or canister that removes specific air contaminants by passing ambient air through the air-purifying element.

                G.            “ALARA” (acronym for “as low as is reasonably achievable”) means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits in these regulations as is practical, consistent with the purpose for which the licensed or registered activity is undertaken, taking into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to benefits to the public health and safety and other societal and socioeconomic considerations, and in relation to utilization of nuclear energy and licensed or registered sources of radiation in the public interest.

                H.            “ALI” (annual limit on intake) means the derived limit for the amount of radioactive material taken into the body of an adult worker by inhalation or ingestion in a year. ALI is the smaller value of intake of a given radionuclide in a year by the reference man that would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (0.05 sievert) or a committed dose equivalent of 50 rems (0.5 sievert) to any individual organ or tissue. ALI values for intake by ingestion and by inhalation of selected radionuclides are given in columns 1 and 2 of table I of 20.3.4.461 NMAC.

                I.             “APF” (assigned protection factor) means the expected workplace level of respiratory protection that would be provided by a properly functioning respirator or a class of respirators to properly fitted and trained users. Operationally, the inhaled concentration can be estimated by dividing the ambient airborne concentration by the APF.

                J.             “Atmosphere-supplying respirator” means a respirator that supplies the respirator user with breathing air from a source independent of the ambient atmosphere, and includes supplied-air respirators (SARs) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units.

                K.            “Background radiation” means radiation from cosmic sources; naturally occurring radioactive material as it occurs in nature, including radon (except as a decay product of source or special nuclear material); and global fallout as it exists in the environment from the testing of nuclear explosive devices or from past nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl that contribute to background radiation and are not under the control of the licensee. Background radiation does not include radiation from radioactive material regulated by the department or NRC.

                L.            “Bioassay” (radiobioassay) means the determination of kinds, quantities or concentrations, and, in some cases, the locations of radioactive material in the human body, whether by direct measurement (in vivo counting) or by analysis and evaluation of materials excreted or removed from the human body.

                M.           “Class” (lung class or inhalation class) means a classification scheme for inhaled material according to its rate of clearance from the pulmonary region of the lung. Materials are classified as D, W or Y, which applies to a range of clearance half-times: for class D (days) of less than 10 days, for class W (weeks) from 10 to 100 days, and for class Y (years) of greater than 100 days.

                N.            “Collective dose” means the sum of the individual doses received in a given period of time by a specified population from exposure to a specified source of radiation.

                O.            “Committed dose equivalent” (HT,50) means the dose equivalent to organs or tissues of reference (T) that will be received from an intake of radioactive material by an individual during the 50-year period following the intake.

                P.            “Committed effective dose equivalent” (HE,50) is the sum of the products of the weighting factors applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated and the committed dose equivalent to each of these organs or tissues (HE,50 = {sum over T}wTHT,50).

                Q.            “Constraint” (dose constraint) means a value above which specified licensee actions are required.

                R.            “Controlled area” means an area, outside of a restricted area but inside the site boundary, access to which can be limited by the licensee for any reason.

                S.             “Critical Group” means the group of individuals reasonably expected to receive the greatest exposure to residual radioactivity for any applicable set of circumstances.

                T.            “DAC” means the derived air concentration.

                U.            “DAC-hour” means the derived air concentration - hour.

                V.            “Declared pregnant woman” means a woman who has voluntarily informed the licensee, in writing, of her pregnancy and the estimated date of conception. The declaration remains in effect until the declared pregnant woman withdraws the declaration in writing or is no longer pregnant.

                W.           “Deep dose equivalent” (Hd), which applies to external whole body exposure, means the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 1 centimeter (1000 mg/cm2).

                X.            “Demand respirator” means an atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece only when a negative pressure is created inside the facepiece by inhalation.

                Y.            “Derived air concentration” (DAC) means the concentration of a given radionuclide in air which, if breathed by reference man for a working year of 2,000 hours under conditions of light work, results in an intake of one ALI. For purposes of these regulations, the condition of light work is an inhalation rate of 1.2 cubic meters of air per hour for 2,000 hours in a year. DAC values are given in column 3 of table I of 20.3.4.461 NMAC.

                Z.            “Derived air concentration-hour” (DAC-hour) means the product of the concentration of radioactive material in air, expressed as a fraction or multiple of the derived air concentration for each radionuclide, and the time of exposure to that radionuclide, in hours. A licensee or registrant may take 2,000 DAC-hours to represent one ALI, equivalent to a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (0.05 sievert).

                AA.         “Disposable respirator” means a respirator for which maintenance is not intended and that is designed to be discarded after excessive breathing resistance, sorbent exhaustion, physical damage or end-of-service-life renders it unsuitable for use. Examples of this type of respirator are a disposable half-mask respirator or a disposable escape-only self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).

                AB.         “Distinguishable from background” means that the detectable concentration of a radionuclide is statistically different from the background concentration of that radionuclide in the vicinity of the site or, in the case of structures, in similar materials using adequate measurement technology, survey and statistical techniques.

                AC.         “Dose” (radiation dose) is a generic term that means absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent, committed dose equivalent, committed effective dose equivalent, total organ dose equivalent or total effective dose equivalent.

                AD.         “Dose equivalent” (HT) means the product of the absorbed dose in tissue, quality factor and all other necessary modifying factors at the location of interest. The units of dose equivalent are the sievert (Sv) and rem.

                AE.         “Dose limits” (limits) means the permissible upper bounds of radiation doses established in accordance with these regulations.

                AF.         “Dosimetry processor” means an individual or an organization that processes and evaluates individual monitoring devices in order to determine the radiation dose delivered to the monitoring devices.

                AG.         “Effective dose equivalent” (HE) means the sum of the products of the dose equivalent to each organ or tissue (HT), and the weighting factor (wT) applicable to each of the body organs or tissues (T) that are irradiated (HE = {sum over T}wTHT).

                AH.         “Embryo/fetus” means the developing human organism from conception until the time of birth.

                AI.          “Entrance or access point” means any opening through which an individual could gain access to radiation areas or to radioactive materials. This includes entry or exit portals of sufficient size to permit human entry, irrespective of their intended use.

                AJ.          “Exposure” means being exposed to ionizing radiation or to radioactive material. Exposure also means the quotient of dQ divided by dm where “dQ” is the absolute value of the total charge of the ions of one sign produced in air when all the electrons (negatrons and positrons) liberated by photons in a volume element of air having mass “dm” are completely stopped by air. The special unit of exposure is the roentgen (R). The SI unit of exposure is the coulomb per kilogram (C/kg) (see 20.3.4.8 NMAC).

                AK.         “Exposure rate” means the exposure per unit of time, such as roentgen per minute and milliroentgen per hour.

                AL.         “External dose” means that portion of the dose equivalent received from any source of radiation outside the body.

                AM.        “Extremity” means hand, elbow, arm below the elbow, foot, knee and leg below the knee.

                AN.         “Eye dose equivalent” means the external dose equivalent to the lens of the eye at a tissue depth of 0.3 centimeter (300 mg/cm2).

                AO.         “Filtering facepiece” (dust mask) means a negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece composed of the filtering medium, not equipped with elastomeric sealing surfaces and adjustable straps.

                AP.         “Fit factor” means a quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a specific individual and typically estimates the ratio of the concentration of a substance in ambient air to its concentration inside the respirator when worn.

                AQ.         “Fit test” means the use of a protocol to qualitatively or quantitatively evaluate the fit of a respirator on an individual.

                AR.         “Generally applicable environmental radiation standards” means standards issued by the EPA under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act that impose limits on radiation exposures or levels, and concentrations or quantities of radioactive material in the general environment outside the boundaries of locations under the control of persons possessing or using radioactive material.

                AS.          “Gray” (Gy) means the SI unit of absorbed dose. One gray is equal to an absorbed dose of 1 joule per kilogram (1 gray=100 rads).

                AT.         “Helmet” means a rigid respiratory inlet covering that also provides head protection against impact and penetration.

                AU.         “High radiation area” means an area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels from radiation sources external to the body could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of 0.1 rem (1 millisievert) in 1 hour at 30 centimeters from the radiation source or 30 centimeters from any surface that the radiation penetrates.

                AV.         “Hood” means a respiratory inlet covering that completely covers the head and neck and may also cover portions of the shoulders and torso.

                AW.        “Individual monitoring” means the assessment of:

                                (1)           dose equivalent by the use of individual monitoring devices designed to be worn by an individual; or

                                (2)           committed effective dose equivalent by bioassay or by determination of the time-weighted air concentrations to which an individual has been exposed, that is, DAC-hours; or

                                (3)           dose equivalent by the use of survey data.

                AX.         “Individual monitoring devices” (individual monitoring equipment) means devices designed to be worn by a single individual for the assessment of dose equivalent, such as film badges, thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), pocket ionization chambers and personal (“lapel”) air sampling devices.

                AY.         “Inhalation class” (see “class”).

                AZ.         “Internal dose” means that portion of the dose equivalent received from radioactive material taken into the body.

                BA.         “Lens dose equivalent” (LDE) applies to the external exposure of the lens of the eye and is taken as the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 0.3 centimeter (300 mg/cm2).

                BB.         “Limits” (see “dose limits”).

                BC.         “Loose-fitting facepiece” means a respiratory inlet covering that is designed to form a partial seal with the face.

                BD.         “Lung class” (see “class”).

                BE.         “Member of the public” means any individual except when that individual is receiving an occupational dose.

                BF.         “Minor” means an individual less than 18 years of age.

                BG.         “Monitoring” (radiation monitoring, radiation protection monitoring) means the measurement of radiation, radioactive material concentrations, surface area activities or quantities or radioactive material and the use of the results of these measurements to evaluate potential exposures and doses.

                BH.         “Negative pressure respirator” (tight fitting) means a respirator in which the air pressure inside the facepiece is negative during inhalation with respect to the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.

                BI.          “Nationally tracked source” is a sealed source containing a quantity equal to or greater than category 1 or category 2 levels of any radioactive material listed in 20.3.4.467 NMAC. In this context a sealed source is defined as radioactive material that is sealed in a capsule or closely bonded, in a solid form and which is not exempt from regulatory control. It does not mean material encapsulated solely for disposal, or nuclear material contained in any fuel assembly, subassembly, fuel rod or fuel pellet. Category 1 nationally tracked sources are those containing radioactive material at a quantity equal to or greater than the category 1 threshold. Category 2 nationally tracked sources are those containing radioactive material at a quantity equal to or greater than the category 2 threshold but less than the category 1 threshold.

                BJ.          “Nonstochastic effect” (deterministic effect) means a health effect, the severity of which varies with the dose and for which a threshold is believed to exist. Radiation-induced cataract formation is an example of a nonstochastic effect.

                BK.         “Occupational dose” means the dose received by an individual in the course of employment in which the individual's assigned duties involve exposure to radiation or to radioactive material from licensed and unlicensed sources of radiation, whether in the possession of the licensee, registrant or other person. Occupational dose does not include dose received from background radiation; from any medical administration the individual has received; from exposure to individuals administered radioactive materials and released under Subsection I of 20.3.7.703 NMAC; from voluntary participation in medical research programs; or as a member of the public.

                BL.         “Personnel monitoring equipment” (see “individual monitoring devices”).

                BM.        “Planned special exposure” means an infrequent exposure to radiation, separate from and in addition to the annual occupational dose limits.

                BN.         “Positive pressure respirator” means a respirator in which the pressure inside the respiratory inlet covering exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.

                BO.         “Powered air-purifying respirator” (PAPR) means an air-purifying respirator that uses a blower to force the ambient air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering.

                BP.         “Pressure demand respirator” means a positive pressure atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece when the positive pressure is reduced inside the facepiece by inhalation.

                BQ.         “Public dose” means the dose received by a member of the public from exposure to radiation or radioactive material released by a licensee or registrant, or to any other sources of radiation under the control of a licensee or registrant. Public dose does not include: occupational dose; dose received from background radiation; dose received from any medical administration the individual has received; dose received from exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released under Subsection I of 20.3.7.703 NMAC; or dose received from voluntary participation in medical research programs.

                BR.         “Pyrophoric material” means any liquid that ignites spontaneously in dry or moist air at or below 130 degrees fahrenheit (54.4 degrees celsius) or any solid material, other than one classed as an explosive, which under normal conditions is liable to cause fires through friction, retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited readily and, when ignited, burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious transportation, handling or disposal hazard. Included are spontaneously combustible and water-reactive materials.

                BS.          “Qualitative fit test” (QLFT) means a pass or fail fit test to assess the adequacy of respirator fit that relies on the individual's response to the test agent.

                BT.         “Quality factor” (Q) means the modifying factor, listed in table 8.1 of Subsection C of 20.3.4.8 NMAC and table 8.2 of Subsection D of 20.3.4.8 NMAC, that is used to derive dose equivalent from absorbed dose.

                BU.         “Quantitative fit test” (QNFT) means an assessment of the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator.

                BV.         “Quarter” means a period of time equal to one-fourth of the year observed by the licensee, approximately 13 consecutive weeks, providing that the beginning of the first quarter in a year coincides with the starting date of the year and that no day is omitted or duplicated in consecutive quarters.

                BW.        “Radiation area” means any area, accessible to individuals in which radiation levels could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of 0.005 rem (0.05 millisievert) in 1 hour at 30 centimeters from the source of radiation or from any surface that the radiation penetrates.

                BX.         “Radiation dose” (see “dose”).

                BY.         “Radiobioassay” (see “bioassay”).

                BZ.         “Reference man” means a hypothetical aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics determined by international consensus. These characteristics may be used by researchers and public health employees to standardize results of experiments and to relate biological insult to a common base. A description of reference man is contained in the international commission on radiological protection report (ICRP), publication 23, report of the task group on reference man.

                CA.         “Residual radioactivity” means radioactivity in structures, materials, soils, groundwater and other media at a site resulting from activities under the licensee's control. This includes radioactivity from all licensed and unlicensed sources used by the licensee, but excludes background radiation. It also includes radioactive materials remaining at the site as a result of routine or accidental releases of radioactive material at the site and previous burials at the site, even if those burials were made in accordance with the provisions of this part.

                CB.         “Respiratory protective equipment” means an apparatus, such as a respirator, used to reduce an individual's intake of airborne radioactive materials.

                CC.         “Restricted area” means an area, access to which is limited by the licensee or registrant for purposes of protection of individuals against undue risks from exposure to sources of radiation. Restricted area does not include areas used as residential quarters, but separate rooms in a residential building may be set apart as a restricted area.

                CD.         “Sanitary sewerage” means a system of public sewers for carrying off waste water and refuse, but excluding sewage treatment facilities, septic tanks and leach fields owned or operated by the licensee or registrant.

                CE.         “Self-contained breathing apparatus” (SCBA) means an atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the breathing air source is designed to be carried by the user.

                CF.         “Shallow-dose equivalent” (Hs), which applies to the external exposure of the skin of the whole body or the skin of an extremity, is taken as the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 0.007 centimeter (7 mg/cm2).

                CG.         “SI” means the international system of units.

                CH.         “Site boundary” means that line beyond which the land or property is not owned, leased or otherwise controlled by the licensee or registrant.

                CI.          “Stochastic effect” (probabilistic effect) means a health effect that occurs randomly and for which the probability of the effect occurring, rather than its severity, is assumed to be a linear function of dose without threshold. Hereditary effects and cancer incidence are examples of stochastic effects.

                CJ.          “Supplied-air respirator” (SAR) or airline respirator means an atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the source of breathing air is not designed to be carried by the user.

                CK.         “TEDE” (total effective dose equivalent) means the sum of the effective dose equivalent for external exposures and the committed effective dose equivalent for internal exposures.

                CL.         “Tight-fitting facepiece” means a respiratory inlet covering that forms a complete seal with the face.

                CM.        “TODE” (total organ dose equivalent) means the sum of the deep dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to the organ receiving the highest dose as described in Paragraph (6) of Subsection A of 20.3.4.446 NMAC.

                CN.         “Unrestricted area” means an area, access to which is neither limited nor controlled by the licensee or registrant.

                CO.         “User seal check” (fit check) means an action conducted by the respirator user to determine if the respirator is properly seated to the face. Examples include negative pressure check, positive pressure check, irritant smoke check or isoamyl acetate check.

                CP.         “Very high radiation area” means an area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels from radiation sources external to the body could result in an individual receiving an absorbed dose in excess of 500 rads (5 grays) in 1 hour at 1 meter from a radiation source or 1 meter from any surface that the radiation penetrates.

                CQ.         “Waste disposal site operators” means persons licensed to dispose of radioactive waste.

                CR.         “Waste handling licensees” means persons licensed to receive and store radioactive wastes prior to disposal or persons licensed to dispose of radioactive waste.

                CS.          “Week” means 7 consecutive days starting on Sunday.

                CT.         “Weighting factor” (wT) for an organ or tissue (T) means the proportion of the risk of stochastic effects resulting from irradiation of that organ or tissue to the total risk of stochastic effects when the whole body is irradiated uniformly. For calculating the effective dose equivalent, the values of wT are:

TABLE 7.1

ORGAN DOSE WEIGHTING FACTORS

Organ or Tissue

 

wT

Gonads

0.25

Breast

0.15

Red bone marrow

0.12

Lung

0.12

Thyroid

0.03

Bone surfaces

0.03

Remainder

0.301

 

Whole Body

 

 

1.002

table 7.1 notes:

1 0.30 results from 0.06 for each of 5 “remainder” organs, excluding the skin and the lens of the eye, that receive the highest doses.

2 for the purpose of weighting the external whole body dose, for adding it to the internal dose, a single weighting factor, wT = 1.0, has been specified. The use of other weighting factors for external exposure will be approved on a case-by-case basis until such time as specific guidance is issued.

                CU.         “Whole body” means, for purpose of external exposure, head, trunk including male gonads, arms above the elbow or legs above the knee.

                CV.         “Worker” means an individual engaged in work under a license or registration issued by the department and controlled by a licensee or registrant, but does not include the licensee or registrant.

                CW.        “Working level” (WL) means any combination of short-lived radon daughters in 1 liter of air that will result in the ultimate emission of 1.3E+5 megaelectronvolts of potential alpha particle energy. The short-lived radon daughters are for radon-222: polonium-218, lead-214, bismuth-214 and polonium-214; and for radon-220: polonium-216, lead-212, bismuth-212 and polonium-212.

                CX.         “Working level month” (WLM) means exposure to 1 working level for 170 hours (2,000 working hours per year divided by 12 months per year is approximately equal to 170 hours per month).

                CY.         “Year” means the period of time beginning in January used to determine compliance with the provisions of these regulations. The licensee or registrant may change the starting date of the year used to determine compliance by the licensee or registrant provided that the change is made at the beginning of the year and that no day is omitted or duplicated in consecutive years.

[20.3.4.7 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.7 NMAC, 04/30/2009; A, 06/30/2011]

 

20.3.4.8                 UNITS OF EXPOSURE AND DOSE:

                A.            As used in these regulations, the unit of exposure is the coulomb per kilogram (C/kg) of air. One roentgen is equal to 2.58E-4 coulomb per kilogram of air.

                B.            As used in these regulations, the units of dose are:

                                (1)           gray (Gy) is the SI unit of absorbed dose; one gray is equal to an absorbed dose of 1 joule per kilogram (1 gray = 100 rads);

                                (2)           rad is the special unit of absorbed dose; one rad is equal to an absorbed dose of 100 erg per gram or 0.01 joule per kilogram (1 rad = 0.01 gray);

                                (3)           rem is the special unit of any of the quantities expressed as dose equivalent; the dose equivalent in rem is equal to the absorbed dose in rad multiplied by the quality factor (1 rem = 0.01 sievert); and

                                (4)           sievert is the SI unit of any of the quantities expressed as dose equivalent; the dose equivalent in sievert is equal to the absorbed dose in gray multiplied by the quality factor (1 sievert = 100 rems).

                C.            As used in these regulations, the quality factors for converting absorbed dose to dose equivalent are shown in table 8.1.

TABLE 8.1

QUALITY FACTORS AND ABSORBED DOSE EQUIVALENCIES

Type of Radiation

Quality Factor (Q)

Absorbed Dose Equal to A Unit Dose Equivalent1

X, gamma, or beta radiation and high-speed electrons

1

1

Alpha particles, multiple-charged particles, fission fragments and heavy particles of unknown charge

20

0.05

Neutrons of unknown energy

10

0.1

High-energy protons

10

0.1

Table 8.1 note: 1absorbed dose in gray equal to 1 sievert or the absorbed dose in rad equal to 1 rem.

 

                D.            If it is more convenient to measure the neutron fluence rate than to determine the neutron dose equivalent rate in sievert per hour or rem per hour, as provided in Subsection C of this section, 0.01 sievert (1 rem) of neutron radiation of unknown energies may, for purposes of these regulations, be assumed to result from a total fluence of 25 million neutrons per square centimeter incident upon the body. If sufficient information exists to estimate the approximate energy distribution of the neutrons, the licensee or registrant may use the fluence rate per unit dose equivalent or the appropriate Q value from table 8.2 to convert a measured tissue dose in gray or rad to dose equivalent in sievert or rem (Note: The values in table 8.2 are presented in the “E” notation. In this notation a value of 5E-1 represents a value of 5x10-1 or 0.5. A value of 4E+2 represents 4x102 or 400.)

TABLE 8.2

MEAN QUALITY FACTORS, Q, AND FLUENCE PER UNIT DOSE EQUIVALENT FOR MONOENERGETIC NEUTRONS

Neutron Energy

(megaelectronvolt)

Quality Factor1 (Q)

Fluence per Unit Dose

Equivalent2 (neutrons

centimeter-2 rem-1)

Fluence per Unit Dose

Equivalent (neutrons

centimeter-2 sievert-1)

(thermal) 2.5E-8

2

980E+6

980E+8

1E-7

2

980E+6

980E+8

1E-6

2

810E+6

810E+8

1E-5

2

810E+6

810E+8

1E-4

2

840E+6

840E+8

1E-3

2

980E+6

980E+8

1E-2

2.5

1010E+6

1010E+8

1E-1

7.5

170E+6

170E+8

5E-1

11

39E+6

39E+8

1

11

27E+6

27E+8

2.5

9

29E+6

29E+8

5

8

23E+6

23E+8

7

7

24E+6

24E+8

10

6.5

24E+6

24E+8

14

7.5

17E+6

17E+8

20

8

16E+6

16E+8

40

7

14E+6

14E+8

60

5.5

16E+6

16E+8

1E+2

4

20E+6

20E+8

2E+2

3.5

19E+6

19E+8

3E+2

3.5

16E+6

16E+8

4E+2

3.5

14E+6

14E+8

Table 8.2 notes:

1 value of quality factor (Q) at the point where the dose equivalent is maximum in a 30-centimeter diameter cylinder tissue-equivalent phantom;

2 monoenergetic neutrons incident normally on a 30-centimeter diameter cylinder tissue-equivalent phantom.

[20.3.4.8 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.1.117 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.9                 UNITS OF ACTIVITY:  For purposes of these regulations, activity is expressed in the SI unit of becquerel (Bq) or in the special unit of curie (Ci), or their multiples, or disintegrations or transformations per unit of time.

                A.            One becquerel (Bq) = 1 disintegration or transformation per second (dps or tps).

                B.            One curie (Ci) = 3.7x1010 disintegration or transformation per second (dps or tps) = 3.7x1010 becquerel (Bq) = 2.22x1012 disintegration or transformation per minute (dpm or tpm).

[20.3.4.9 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.1.7 NMAC 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.10 through 20.3.4.402           [RESERVED]

 

20.3.4.403             IMPLEMENTATION:

                A.            Any existing license or registration condition or technical specification that is more restrictive than a requirement in this part remains in force until there is a technical specification change, license amendment or renewal, or registration amendment or renewal.

                B.            If a license or registration condition or technical specification exempted a licensee or registrant from a requirement in the standards for protection against radiation in effect prior to May 3, 1995 (see 20.3.4 NMAC codified as of May 3, 1995), it continues to exempt the licensee or registrant from the corresponding provision of this part.

                C.            If a license or registration condition cites provisions of this part in effect prior to the effective date of the regulations in this part, which do not correspond to any current provisions of this part, then the license or registration condition remains in force until there is a technical specification change, an amendment or renewal of the license or registration that modifies or removes that condition.

[20.3.4.403 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.403 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.404             RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS:

                A.            Each licensee or registrant shall develop, document and implement a radiation protection program commensurate with the scope and extent of licensed or registered activities and sufficient to ensure compliance with the provisions of this part (see 20.3.4.441 NMAC for recordkeeping requirements related to these programs.)

                B.            The licensee or registrant shall use, to the extent practical, procedures and engineering controls based upon sound radiation protection principles to achieve occupational doses and doses to members of the public that are ALARA.

                C.            The licensee or registrant shall, at intervals not to exceed 12 months, review the radiation protection program content and implementation.

                D.            To implement the ALARA requirements of Subsection B of this section, and notwithstanding the requirements in 20.3.4.413 NMAC, a constraint on air emissions of radioactive material to the environment, excluding Radon-222 and its daughters, shall be established by licensees such that the individual member of the public likely to receive the highest dose will not be expected to receive a total effective dose equivalent in excess of 10 millirems (0.1 millisievert) per year from these emissions. If a licensee subject to this requirement exceeds this dose constraint, the licensee shall report the exceedance as provided in 20.3.4.453 NMAC and promptly take appropriate corrective action to ensure against recurrence.

[20.3.4.404 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.404 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.405             OCCUPATIONAL DOSE LIMITS FOR ADULTS:

                A.            Annual limits. The licensee or registrant shall control the occupational dose to individual adults, except for planned special exposures pursuant to 20.3.4.410 NMAC, to the following dose limits:

                                (1)           an annual limit, which is the more limiting of:

                                                (a)           the total effective dose equivalent being equal to 5 rems (0.05 sievert); or

                                                (b)           the sum of the deep dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to any individual organ or tissue other than the lens of the eye being equal to 50 rems (0.5 sievert); and

                                (2)           the annual limits to the lens of the eye, to the skin of the whole body, and to the skin of extremities which are:

                                                (a)           a lens dose equivalent of 15 rems (0.15 sievert); and

                                                (b)           a shallow dose equivalent of 50 rems (0.5 sievert) to the skin of the whole body or to the skin of any extremity.

                B.            Doses received in excess of the annual limits, including doses received during accidents, emergencies and planned special exposures, shall be subtracted from the limits for planned special exposures that the individual may receive during the current year and during the individual's lifetime (see Subsection E of 20.3.4.410 NMAC).

                C.            Determining, assessing and assigning dose equivalent.

                                (1)           When the external exposure is determined by measurement with an external personal monitoring device, the deep dose equivalent must be used in place of the effective dose equivalent, unless the effective dose equivalent is determined by a dosimetry method approved by the department. The assigned shallow-dose equivalent must be the dose averaged over the contiguous 10 square centimeters of skin receiving the highest exposure. The deep-dose equivalent, lens dose equivalent and shallow-dose equivalent may be assessed from surveys or other radiation measurements for the purpose of demonstrating compliance with the occupational dose limits, if the individual monitoring device was not in the region of highest potential exposure, or the results of individual monitoring are unavailable.

                                (2)           Working with fluoroscopic equipment. When a protective apron is worn while working with medical fluoroscopic equipment and monitoring is conducted as specified in Paragraph (5) of Subsection A of 20.3.4.417 NMAC, the effective dose equivalent for external radiation shall be determined as follows:

                                                (a)           when only one individual monitoring device is used and it is located at the neck outside the protective apron, the reported deep dose equivalent shall be the effective dose equivalent for external radiation; or

                                                (b)           when only one individual monitoring device is used and it is located at the neck outside the protective apron, and the reported dose exceeds 25 percent of the limit specified in Subsection A of this section, the reported deep dose equivalent value multiplied by 0.3 shall be the effective dose equivalent for external radiation; or

                                                (c)           when individual monitoring devices are worn, both under the protective apron at the waist and outside the protective apron at the neck, the effective dose equivalent for external radiation shall be assigned the value of the sum of the deep dose equivalent reported for the individual monitoring device located at the waist under the protective apron multiplied by 1.5 and the deep dose equivalent reported for the individual monitoring device located at the neck outside the protective apron multiplied by 0.04.

                D.            DAC and ALI. Derived air concentration (DAC) and annual limit on intake (ALI) values are specified in table I of 20.3.4.461 NMAC, and may be used to determine the individual's dose and to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits.

                E.            Uranium limits. Notwithstanding the annual dose limits, the licensee shall limit the soluble uranium intake by an individual to 10 milligrams in a week in consideration of chemical toxicity (see table note 3 of 20.3.4.461 NMAC.)

                F.            Prior dose. The licensee or registrant shall reduce the dose that an individual may be allowed to receive in the current year by the amount of occupational dose received while employed by any other person during the current year (see 20.3.4.409 NMAC).

[20.3.4.405 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.405 NMAC, 04/30/2009; A, 06/30/2011]

 

20.3.4.406             COMPLIANCE WITH REQUIREMENTS FOR SUMMATION OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL DOSES:

                A.            If the licensee or registrant is required to monitor pursuant to both Subsections A and B of 20.3.4.417 NMAC, the licensee or registrant shall demonstrate compliance with the dose limits by summing external and internal doses. If the licensee or registrant is required to monitor only pursuant to either Subsection A or Subsection B of 20.3.4.417 NMAC, then summation is not required to demonstrate compliance with the dose limits. The licensee or registrant may demonstrate compliance with the requirements for summation of external and internal doses pursuant to Subsections B, C and D of this section. The dose equivalents for the lens of the eye, the skin and the extremities are not included in the summation, but are subject to separate limits.

                B.            Intake by Inhalation. If the only intake of radionuclides is by inhalation, the total effective dose equivalent limit is not exceeded if the sum of the deep dose equivalent divided by the total effective dose equivalent limit, and one of the following, does not exceed unity:

                                (1)           the sum of the fractions of the inhalation ALI for each radionuclide; or

                                (2)           the total number of derived air concentration-hours (DAC-hours) for all radionuclides divided by 2,000; or

                                (3)           the sum of the calculated committed effective dose equivalents to all significantly irradiated organs or tissues (T) calculated from bioassay data using appropriate biological models and expressed as a fraction of the annual limit; for purposes of this requirement, an organ or tissue is deemed to be significantly irradiated if, for that organ or tissue, the product of the weighting factors, wT, and the committed dose equivalent, HT,50, per unit intake is greater than 10 percent of the maximum weighted value of HT,50, that is, wTHT,50, per unit intake for any organ or tissue.

                C.            Intake by Oral Ingestion. If the occupationally exposed individual receives an intake of radionuclides by oral ingestion greater than 10 percent of the applicable oral ALI, the licensee or registrant shall account for this intake and include it in demonstrating compliance with the limits.

                D.            Intake through Wounds or Absorption through Skin. The licensee or registrant shall evaluate and, to the extent practical, account for intakes through wounds or skin absorption. The intake through intact skin has been included in the calculation of DAC for hydrogen-3 and does not need to be evaluated or accounted for pursuant to Subsection D of 20.3.4.406 NMAC.

[20.3.4.406 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.406 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.407             DETERMINATION OF EXTERNAL DOSE FROM AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL:

                A.            Licensees or registrants shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include the contribution to the deep dose equivalent, lens dose equivalent and shallow dose equivalent from external exposure to the radioactive cloud (see 20.3.4.461 NMAC, table notes 1 and 2).

                B.            Airborne radioactivity measurements and DAC values shall not be used as the primary means to assess the deep dose equivalent when the airborne radioactive material includes radionuclides other than noble gases or if the cloud of airborne radioactive material is not relatively uniform. The determination of the deep dose equivalent to an individual shall be based upon measurements using instruments or individual monitoring devices.

[20.3.4.407 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.407 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

20.3.4.408             DETERMINATION OF INTERNAL EXPOSURE:

                A.            For purposes of assessing dose used to determine compliance with occupational dose equivalent limits, the licensee or registrant shall, when required pursuant to 20.3.4.417 NMAC, take suitable and timely measurements of:

                                (1)           concentrations of radioactive materials in air in work areas; or

                                (2)           quantities of radionuclides in the body; or

                                (3)           quantities of radionuclides excreted from the body; or

                                (4)           combinations of these measurements.

                B.            Unless respiratory protective equipment is used, as provided in 20.3.4.423 NMAC, or the assessment of intake is based on bioassays, the licensee or registrant shall assume that an individual inhales radioactive material at the airborne concentration in which the individual is present.

                C.            When specific information on the physical and biochemical properties of the radionuclides taken into the body or the behavior of the material in an individual is known, the licensee or registrant may:

                                (1)           use that information to calculate the committed effective dose equivalent, and, if used, the licensee or registrant shall document that information in the individual's record;

                                (2)           upon prior approval of the department, adjust the DAC or ALI values to reflect the actual physical and chemical characteristics of airborne radioactive material, for example, aerosol size distribution or density; and

                                (3)           separately assess the contribution of fractional intakes of class D, W or Y compounds of a given radionuclide to the committed effective dose equivalent (see 20.3.4.461 NMAC).

                D.            If the licensee or registrant chooses to assess intakes of class Y material using the measurements given in Paragraphs (2) or (3)of Subsection A of this section, the licensee or registrant may delay the recording and reporting of the assessments for periods up to 7 months, unless otherwise required by 20.3.4.452 NMAC or 20.3.4.453 NMAC. This delay permits the licensee or registrant to make additional measurements basic to the assessments.

                E.            If the identity and concentration of each radionuclide in a mixture are known, the fraction of the DAC applicable to the mixture for use in calculating DAC-hours shall be either:

                                (1)           the sum of the ratios of the concentration to the appropriate DAC value, that is, D, W or Y, from 20.3.4.461 NMAC for each radionuclide in the mixture; or

                                (2)           the ratio of the total concentration for all radionuclides in the mixture to the most restrictive DAC value for any radionuclide in the mixture.

                F.            If the identity of each radionuclide in a mixture is known, but the concentration of one or more of the radionuclides in the mixture is not known, the DAC for the mixture shall be the most restrictive DAC of any radionuclide in the mixture.

                G.            When a mixture of radionuclides in air exists, a licensee or registrant may disregard certain radionuclides in the mixture if:

                                (1)           the licensee or registrant uses the total activity of the mixture in demonstrating compliance with the dose limits in 20.3.4.405 NMAC and in complying with the monitoring requirements in Subsection B of 20.3.4.417 NMAC; and

                                (2)           the concentration of any radionuclide disregarded is less than 10 percent of its DAC; and

                                (3)           the sum of these percentages for all of the radionuclides disregarded in the mixture does not exceed 30 percent.

                H.            When determining the committed effective dose equivalent, the following information may be considered:

                                (1)           in order to calculate the committed effective dose equivalent, the licensee or registrant may assume that the inhalation of one ALI, or an exposure of 2,000 DAC-hours, results in a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (0.05 sievert) for radionuclides that have their ALIs or DACs based on the committed effective dose equivalent;

                                (2)           for an ALI and the associated DAC determined by the nonstochastic organ dose limit of 50 rems (0.5 sievert), the intake of radionuclides that would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (0.05 sievert), that is, the stochastic ALI, is listed in parentheses in table I of 20.3.4.461 NMAC; the licensee or registrant may, as a simplifying assumption, use the stochastic ALI to determine committed effective dose equivalent; however, if the licensee or registrant uses the stochastic ALI, the licensee or registrant shall also demonstrate that the limit in Paragraph (2) of Subsection A of 20.3.4.405 NMAC is met.

[20.3.4.408 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.408 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.409             DETERMINATION OF PRIOR OCCUPATIONAL DOSE:

                A.            For each individual who may enter the licensee's or registrant's restricted area and is likely to receive, in a year, an occupational dose requiring monitoring pursuant to 20.3.4.417 NMAC, the licensee or registrant shall determine the occupational radiation dose received during the current year.

                B.            Prior to permitting an individual to participate in a planned special exposure, the licensee or registrant shall determine:

                                (1)           the internal and external doses from all previous planned special exposures; and

                                (2)           all doses in excess of the limits, including doses received during accidents and emergencies, received during the lifetime of the individual.

                C.            In complying with the requirements of Subsections A or B of this section, a licensee or registrant may:

                                (1)           accept, as a record of the occupational dose that the individual received during the current year, a written signed statement from the individual, or from the individual's most recent employer for work involving radiation exposure, that discloses the nature and the amount of any occupational dose that the individual received during the current year; and

                                (2)           accept, as the record of lifetime cumulative radiation dose, a form cumulative occupational dose history  or equivalent, signed by the individual and countersigned by an appropriate official of the most recent employer for work involving radiation exposure, or the individual's current employer, if the individual is not employed by the licensee or registrant; and

                                (3)           obtain reports of the individual's dose equivalent from the most recent employer for work involving radiation exposure, or the individual's current employer, if the individual is not employed by the licensee or registrant, by telephone, telegram, facsimile or letter; the licensee or registrant shall request a written verification of the dose data if the authenticity of the transmitted report cannot be established.

                D.            Recording exposure history.

                                (1)           The licensee or registrant shall record the exposure history of each individual, as required by Subsections A and B of this section, on department form cumulative occupational dose history, or other clear and legible record, including all the information required by that form. The form or record shall show each period in which the individual received occupational exposure to radiation or radioactive material and shall be signed by the individual who received the exposure. For each period for which the licensee or registrant obtains reports, the licensee or registrant shall use the dose shown in the report in preparing department form cumulative occupational dose history or equivalent. For any period in which the licensee or registrant does not obtain a report, the licensee or registrant shall place a notation on department form cumulative occupational dose history or equivalent indicating the periods of time for which data are not available.

                                (2)           Licensees or registrants are not required to partition historical dose between external dose equivalent(s) and internal committed dose equivalent(s). Further, occupational exposure histories obtained and recorded on department form cumulative occupational dose history or equivalent before the effective date of these regulations, might not have included effective dose equivalent, but may be used in the absence of specific information on the intake of radionuclides by the individual.

                E.            If the licensee or registrant is unable to obtain a complete record of an individual's current and previously accumulated occupational dose, the licensee or registrant shall assume:

                                (1)           in establishing administrative controls pursuant to Subsection F of 20.3.4.405 NMAC for the current year, that the allowable dose limit for the individual is reduced by 1.25 rems (12.5 millisieverts) for each quarter for which records were unavailable and the individual was engaged in activities that could have resulted in occupational radiation exposure; and

                                (2)           that the individual is not available for planned special exposures.

                F.            The licensee or registrant shall retain the records on department form cumulative occupational dose history or equivalent until the department terminates each pertinent license or registration requiring this record. The licensee or registrant shall retain records used in preparing department form cumulative occupational dose history or equivalent for 3 years after the record is made.

[20.3.4.409 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.409 NMAC, 04/30/2009; A, 06/30/2011]

 

20.3.4.410             PLANNED SPECIAL EXPOSURES:  A licensee or registrant may authorize an adult worker to receive doses in addition to and accounted for separately from the doses received under the limits specified in 20.3.4.405 NMAC provided that each of the following conditions is satisfied:

                A.            the licensee or registrant authorizes a planned special exposure only in an exceptional situation when alternatives that might avoid the dose estimated to result from the planned special exposure are unavailable or impractical;

                B.            the licensee or registrant, and employer if the employer is not the licensee or registrant, specifically authorizes the planned special exposure, in writing, before the exposure occurs;

                C.            before a planned special exposure, the licensee or registrant ensures that each individual involved is:

                                (1)           informed of the purpose of the planned operation;

                                (2)           informed of the estimated doses and associated potential risks and specific radiation levels or other conditions that might be involved in performing the task; and

                                (3)           instructed in the measures to be taken to keep the dose ALARA considering other risks that may be present;

                D.            prior to permitting an individual to participate in a planned special exposure, the licensee or registrant ascertains prior doses as required by Subsection B of 20.3.4.409 NMAC during the lifetime of the individual for each individual involved;

                E.            subject to Subsection B of 20.3.4.405 NMAC, the licensee or registrant shall not authorize a planned special exposure that would cause an individual to receive a dose from all planned special exposures and all doses in excess of the limits to exceed:

                                (1)           the numerical values of any of the dose limits in Subsection A of 20.3.4.405 NMAC in any year; and

                                (2)           five times the annual dose limits in Subsection A of 20.3.4.405 NMAC during the individual's lifetime;

                F.            the licensee or registrant maintains records of the conduct of a planned special exposure in accordance with 20.3.4.445 NMAC and submits a written report in accordance with 20.3.4.454 NMAC;

                G.            the licensee or registrant records the best estimate of the dose resulting from the planned special exposure in the individual’s record and informs the individual, in writing, of the dose within 30 days from the date of the planned special exposure; the dose from planned special exposures shall not be considered in controlling future occupational dose of the individual pursuant to Subsection A of 20.3.4.405 NMAC but shall be included in evaluations required by Subsections D and E of this section.

[20.3.4.410 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.410 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.411             OCCUPATIONAL DOSE LIMITS FOR MINORS:  The annual occupational dose limits for minors are 10 percent of the annual occupational dose limits specified for adult workers in 20.3.4.405 NMAC.

[20.3.4.411 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.411 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.412             DOSE EQUIVALENT TO AN EMBRYO/FETUS:

                A.            The licensee or registrant shall ensure that the dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to the occupational exposure of a declared pregnant woman, does not exceed 0.5 rem (5 millisieverts) (see 20.3.4.446 NMAC for recordkeeping requirements).

                B.            The licensee or registrant shall make efforts to avoid substantial variation above a uniform monthly exposure rate to a declared pregnant woman so as to satisfy the limit in Subsection A of this section.

                C.            The dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus is the sum of:

                                (1)           the dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus resulting from radionuclides in the embryo/fetus and radionuclides in the declared pregnant woman; and

                                (2)           the deep dose equivalent that is most representative of the dose to the embryo/fetus from external radiation, that is, in the mother's lower torso region:

                                                (a)           if multiple measurements have not been made, assignment of the highest deep dose equivalent for the declared pregnant woman shall be the dose to the embryo/fetus, in accordance with Subsection C of 20.3.4.405 NMAC; or

                                                (b)           if multiple measurements have been made, assignment of the deep dose equivalent for the declared pregnant woman from the individual monitoring device which is most representative of the dose to the embryo/fetus shall be the dose to the embryo/fetus; assignment of the highest deep dose equivalent for the declared pregnant woman to the embryo/fetus is not required unless that dose is also the most representative deep dose equivalent for the region of the embryo/fetus.

                D.            If the dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus is found to have exceeded 0.5 rem (5 millisieverts), or is within 0.05 rem (0.5 millisievert) of this dose, by the time the woman declares the pregnancy to the licensee or registrant, the licensee or registrant shall be deemed to be in compliance with Subsection A of this section if the additional dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus does not exceed 0.05 rem (0.5 millisievert) during the remainder of the pregnancy.

[20.3.4.412 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.412 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.413             DOSE LIMITS FOR INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC:

                A.            Each licensee or registrant shall conduct operations so that:

                                (1)           the total effective dose equivalent to individual members of the public from the licensed or registered operation does not exceed 0.1 rem (1 millisievert) in a year, exclusive of the dose contributions from background radiation, from any medical administration the individual has received, from exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released under Subsection I of 20.3.7.703 NMAC, from voluntary participation in medical research programs, and from the licensee's disposal of radioactive material into sanitary sewerage in accordance with 20.3.4.435 NMAC; and

                                (2)           the dose in any unrestricted area from external sources, exclusive of dose contributions from patients administered radioactive material and released under Subsection I of 20.3.7.703 NMAC, does not exceed 0.002 rem (0.02 millisievert) in any one hour.

                B.            If the licensee or registrant permits members of the public to have access to controlled areas, the limits for members of the public continue to apply to those individuals.

                C.            A licensee, registrant, or an applicant for a license or registration may apply for prior department authorization to operate up to an annual dose limit for an individual member of the public of 0.5 rem (5 millisieverts). This application shall include the following information:

                                (1)           demonstration of the need for and the expected duration of operations in excess of the limit in Subsection A of this section;

                                (2)           the licensee's or registrant's program to assess and control dose within the 0.5 rem (5 millisieverts) annual limit;

                                (3)           the procedures to be followed to maintain the dose ALARA.

                D.            In addition to the requirements of this part, a licensee or registrant subject to the provisions of the EPA's generally applicable environmental radiation standards in 40 CFR 190 shall comply with those standards.

                E.            The department may impose additional restrictions on radiation levels in unrestricted areas and on the total quantity of radionuclides that a licensee or registrant may release in effluents in order to restrict the collective dose.

                F.            Notwithstanding Paragraph (1) of Subsection A of this section, a licensee may permit visitors to an individual who cannot be released, under Subsection I of 20.3.7.703 NMAC, to receive a radiation dose greater than 0.1 rem (1 millisievert) if:

                                (1)           the radiation dose received does not exceed 0.5 rem (5 millisieverts); and

                                (2)           the authorized user, as defined in 20.3.7 NMAC, has determined before the visit that it is appropriate.

[20.3.4.413 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.413 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.414             COMPLIANCE WITH DOSE LIMITS FOR INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC:

                A.            The licensee or registrant shall make or cause to be made surveys of radiation levels in unrestricted and controlled areas and radioactive materials in effluents released to unrestricted and controlled areas to demonstrate compliance with the dose limits in 20.3.4.413 NMAC for individual members of the public.

                B.            A licensee or registrant shall show compliance with the annual dose limit in 20.3.4.413 NMAC by:

                                (1)           demonstrating by measurement or calculation that the total effective dose equivalent to the individual likely to receive the highest dose from the licensed or registered operation does not exceed the annual dose limit; or

                                (2)           demonstrating that:

                                                (a)           the annual average concentrations of radioactive material released in gaseous and liquid effluents at the boundary of the unrestricted area do not exceed the values specified in table II of 20.3.4.461 NMAC; and

                                                (b)           if an individual were continuously present in an unrestricted area, the dose from external sources would not exceed 0.002 rem (0.02 millisievert) in an hour and 0.05 rem (0.5 millisievert) in a year.

                C.            Upon approval from the department, the licensee or registrant may adjust the effluent concentration values in table II of 20.3.4.461 NMAC for members of the public, to take into account the actual physical and chemical characteristics of the effluents, such as, aerosol size distribution, solubility, density, radioactive decay equilibrium and chemical form.

[20.3.4.414 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.414 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.415             TESTING FOR LEAKAGE OR CONTAMINATION OF SEALED SOURCES:

                A.            The licensee in possession of any sealed source shall assure that:

                                (1)           each sealed source, except as specified in Subsection B of this section, is tested for leakage or contamination and the test results are received before the sealed source is put into use unless the licensee has a certificate from the transferor indicating that the sealed source was tested within the frequencies specified in Paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection, before transfer to the licensee;

                                (2)           each sealed source that is not designed to emit alpha particles is tested for leakage or contamination at intervals not to exceed 6 months, or at alternative intervals specified by the source manufacturer and as approved by the department, NRC or an agreement state;

                                (3)           each sealed source that is designed to emit alpha particles is tested for leakage or contamination at intervals not to exceed 3 months, or at alternative intervals specified by the source manufacturer and as approved by the department, NRC or an agreement state;

                                (4)           for each sealed source that is required to be tested for leakage or contamination, at any other time there is reason to suspect that the sealed source might have been damaged or might be leaking, the licensee shall assure that the sealed source is tested for leakage or contamination before further use;

                                (5)           tests for leakage for all sealed sources, except brachytherapy sources manufactured to contain radium, shall be capable of detecting the presence of 0.005 microcuries (185 becquerels) of radioactive material on a test sample; test samples shall be taken from the sealed source or from the surfaces of the container in which the sealed source is stored or mounted on which one might expect contamination to accumulate; for a sealed source contained in a device, test samples are obtained when the source is in the “off” position;

                                (6)           the test for leakage for brachytherapy sources manufactured to contain radium shall be capable of detecting an absolute leakage rate of 0.001 microcuries (37 becquerels) of radon-222 in a 24 hour period when the collection efficiency for radon-222 and its daughters has been determined with respect to collection method, volume and time; and

                                (7)           tests for contamination from radium daughters shall be taken on the interior surface of brachytherapy source storage containers and shall be capable of detecting the presence of 0.005 microcuries (185 becquerels) of a radium daughter which has a half-life greater than 4 days.

                B.            A licensee need not perform tests for leakage or contamination on the following sealed sources:

                                (1)           sealed sources containing only radioactive material with a half-life of less than 30 days;

                                (2)           sealed sources containing only radioactive material as a gas;

                                (3)           sealed sources containing 100 microcuries (3.7 megabecquerels) or less of beta or photon-emitting material or 10 microcuries (370 kilobecquerels) or less of alpha-emitting material;

                                (4)           sealed sources containing only hydrogen-3;

                                (5)           seeds of iridium-192 encased in nylon ribbon; and

                                (6)           sealed sources, except teletherapy and brachytherapy sources, which are not being used and identified as in storage; however, the licensee shall test each such sealed source for leakage or contamination and receive the test results before any use or transfer of the source unless it has been tested for leakage or contamination within such frequency as specified in Paragraphs (2) and (3) of Subsection A of this section before the date of use or transfer.

                C.            Tests for leakage or contamination from sealed sources shall be performed by persons specifically authorized by the department.

                D.            Test results shall be kept in units of becquerel or microcurie and maintained for inspection by the department. Records of test results for sealed sources shall be made pursuant to 20.3.4.443 NMAC.

                E.            The following shall be considered evidence that a sealed source is leaking:

                                (1)           the presence of 0.005 microcuries (185 becquerels) or more of removable contamination on any test sample;

                                (2)           leakage of 0.001 microcuries (37 becquerels) of radon-222 per 24 hours for brachytherapy sources manufactured to contain radium; and

                                (3)           the presence of removable contamination resulting from the decay of 0.005 microcuries (185 becquerels) or more of radium.

                F.            The licensee shall immediately withdraw a leaking sealed source from use and shall take action to prevent the spread of contamination. The leaking sealed source shall be repaired or disposed of in accordance with this part.

                G.            Reports of test results for leaking or contaminated sealed sources shall be made pursuant to 20.3.4.458 NMAC.

[20.3.4.415 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.415 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.416             GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SURVEY AND MONITORING:

                A.            Each licensee or registrant shall make, or cause to be made, surveys of areas, including the subsurface, that:

                                (1)           may be necessary to demonstrate compliance with this part; and

                                (2)           are necessary under the circumstances to evaluate:

                                                (a)           the magnitude and extent of radiation levels;

                                                (b)           concentrations or quantities of radioactive material and residual radioactivity;

                                                (c)           the potential radiological hazards of the radiation levels and residual

 radioactivity detected; and

                                                (d)           notwithstanding 10 CFR 20 or equivalent state regulations of this part, records

from surveys describing the location and amount of subsurface residual radioactivity identified at the site must be kept with records important for decommissioning, and such records must be retained in accordance with the applicable regulations in 10 CFR parts 30, 40, 50, 70, or 72.30 or equivalent state regulations.

                B.            The licensee or registrant shall ensure that instruments and equipment used for quantitative radiation measurements (e.g. dose rate and effluent monitoring) are calibrated at intervals not to exceed 12 months, except when a more frequent interval is specified in another applicable part of this chapter or in a license condition.

                C.            All personnel dosimeters (except for direct and indirect reading pocket ionization chambers and those dosimeters used to measure the dose to the extremity) that require processing to determine the radiation dose and that are used by licensees and registrants to comply with 20.3.4.405 NMAC, with other applicable provisions of this chapter or with conditions specified in a license or registration shall be processed and evaluated by a dosimetry processor:

                                (1)           holding current personnel dosimetry accreditation from the national voluntary laboratory accreditation program (NVLAP) of the national institute of standards and technology (NIST); and

                                (2)           approved in this accreditation process for the type of radiation or radiations included in the national voluntary laboratory accreditation program (NVLAP) program that most closely approximates the type of radiation or radiations for which the individual wearing the dosimeter is monitored.

                D.            The licensee or registrant shall ensure that adequate precautions are taken to prevent a deceptive exposure of an individual monitoring device.

[20.3.4.416 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.416 NMAC, 04/30/2009; A, 06/13/2017]

 

20.3.4.417             CONDITIONS REQUIRING INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL OCCUPATIONAL DOSE:  Each licensee or registrant shall monitor exposures from sources of radiation at levels sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits of this part. As a minimum the following requirements shall be met.

                A.            Each licensee or registrant shall monitor occupational exposure to radiation from licensed and unlicensed radiation sources under the control of the licensee or registrant and shall supply and require the use of individual monitoring devices by:

                                (1)           adults likely to receive, in 1 year from sources external to the body, a dose in excess of 10 percent of the limits in Subsection A of 20.3.4.405 NMAC;

                                (2)           minors likely to receive, in 1 year, from radiation sources external to the body, a deep dose equivalent in excess of  0.1 rem (1 millisievert), a lens dose equivalent in excess of 0.15 rem (1.5 millisieverts), or a shallow dose equivalent to the skin or to the extremities in excess of 0.5 rem (5 millisieverts);

                                (3)           declared pregnant women likely to receive during the entire pregnancy, from radiation sources external to the body, a deep dose equivalent in excess of 0.1 rem (1 millisievert) (note: all of the occupational doses in Subsection A of 20.3.4.405 NMAC continue to be applicable to the declared pregnant worker as long as the embryo/fetus dose limit is not exceeded);

                                (4)           individuals entering a high or very high radiation area; and

                                (5)           individuals working with medical fluoroscopic equipment:

                                                (a)           an individual monitoring device used for the dose to an embryo/fetus of a declared pregnant woman, pursuant to Subsection A of 20.3.4.412 NMAC, shall be located under the protective apron at the waist;

                                                (b)           an individual monitoring device used for eye dose equivalent shall be located at the neck, or an unshielded location closer to the eye, outside the protective apron; and

                                                (c)           when only one individual monitoring device is used to determine the effective dose equivalent for external radiation pursuant to Paragraph (2) of Subsection C of 20.3.4.405 NMAC, it shall be located at the neck outside the protective apron; when a second individual monitoring device is used, for the same purpose, it shall be located under the protective apron at the waist; the second individual monitoring device is required for a declared pregnant woman.

                B.            Each licensee or registrant shall monitor (see 20.3.4.408 NMAC) the occupational intake of radioactive material by and assess the committed effective dose equivalent to:

                                (1)           adults likely to receive, in 1 year, an intake in excess of 10 percent of the applicable ALI(s) in columns 1 and 2 of table I of 20.3.4.461 NMAC;

                                (2)           minors likely to receive, in 1 year, a committed effective dose equivalent in excess of 0.1 rem (1 millisievert); and

                                (3)           declared pregnant women likely to receive, during the entire pregnancy, a committed effective dose equivalent in excess of 0.1 rem (1 millisievert).

                C.            Each licensee or registrant shall ensure that individuals who are required to monitor occupational doses in accordance with Subsection A of this section wear individual monitoring devices as follows:

                                (1)           an individual monitoring device used for monitoring the dose to the whole body shall be worn at the unshielded location of the whole body likely to receive the highest exposure; when a protective apron is worn, the location of the individual monitoring device is typically at the neck (collar); or

                                (2)           an individual monitoring device used for monitoring the dose to an embryo/fetus of a declared pregnant woman, pursuant to Subsection A of 20.3.4.412 NMAC, shall be located at the waist under any protective apron being worn by the woman; or

                                (3)           an individual monitoring device used for monitoring the eye dose equivalent, to demonstrate compliance with Subparagraph (a) of Paragraph (2) of Subsection A of 20.3.4.405 NMAC, shall be located at the neck (collar), outside any protective apron being worn by the monitored individual, or at an unshielded location closer to the eye; or

                                (4)           an individual monitoring device used for monitoring the dose to the extremities, to demonstrate compliance with Subparagraph (b) of Paragraph (2) of Subsection A of 20.3.4.405 NMAC, shall be worn on the extremity likely to receive the highest exposure; each individual monitoring device shall be oriented to measure the highest dose to the extremity being monitored.

[20.3.4.417 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.417 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.418             CONTROL OF ACCESS TO HIGH RADIATION AREAS:

                A.            The licensee or registrant shall ensure that each entrance or access point to a high radiation area has one or more of the following features:

                                (1)           a control device that, upon entry into the area, causes the level of radiation to be reduced below that level at which an individual might receive a deep dose equivalent of 0.1 rem (1 millisievert) in 1 hour at 30 centimeters from the source of radiation or from any surface that the radiation penetrates; or

                                (2)           a control device that energizes a conspicuous visible or audible alarm signal so that the individual entering the high radiation area and the supervisor of the activity are made aware of the entry; or

                                (3)           entryways that are locked, except during periods when access to the areas is required, with positive control over each individual entry.

                B.            In place of the controls required by Subsection A of this section for a high radiation area, the licensee or registrant may substitute continuous direct or electronic surveillance that is capable of preventing unauthorized entry.

                C.            The licensee or registrant may apply to the department for approval of alternative methods for controlling access to high radiation areas.

                D.            The licensee or registrant shall establish the controls required by Subsections A and C of this section in a way that does not prevent individuals from leaving a high radiation area.

                E.            The licensee or registrant is not required to control each entrance or access point to a room or other area that is a high radiation area solely because of the presence of radioactive materials prepared for transport, and packaged and labeled in accordance with the regulations of the DOT provided that:

                                (1)           the packages do not remain in the area longer than 3 days; and

                                (2)           the dose rate at 1 meter from the external surface of any package does not exceed 0.01 rem (0.1 millisievert) per hour.

                F.            The licensee or registrant is not required to control entrance or access to rooms or other areas in hospitals solely because of the presence of patients containing radioactive material, provided that there are personnel in attendance who are taking the necessary precautions to prevent the exposure of individuals to radiation or radioactive material in excess of the established limits in this part and to operate within the ALARA provisions of the licensee's or registrant's radiation protection program.

[20.3.4.418 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.418 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.419             CONTROL OF ACCESS TO VERY HIGH RADIATION AREAS:  In addition to the requirements in 20.3.4.418 NMAC, the licensee or registrant shall institute measures to ensure that an individual is not able to gain unauthorized or inadvertent access to areas in which radiation levels could be encountered at 500 rads (5 grays) or more in 1 hour at 1 meter from a source of radiation or any surface through which the radiation penetrates.

[20.3.4.419 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.419 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.420             CONTROL OF ACCESS TO VERY HIGH RADIATION AREAS - IRRADIATORS:  In addition to the requirements in 20.3.4.419 NMAC, the licensee shall comply with the requirements specified in 20.3.15 NMAC for access control.

[20.3.4.420 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.420 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.421             USE OF PROCESS OR OTHER ENGINEERING CONTROLS:  The licensee or registrant shall use, to the extent practicable, process or other engineering controls, such as, containment, decontamination or ventilation, to control the concentrations of radioactive material in air.

[20.3.4.421 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.421 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.422             USE OF OTHER CONTROLS:

                A.            When it is not practical to apply process or other engineering controls to control the concentrations of radioactive material in the air to values below those that define an airborne radioactivity area, the licensee or registrant shall, consistent with maintaining the total effective dose equivalent ALARA, increase monitoring and limit intakes by one or more of the following means:

                                (1)           control of access;

                                (2)           limitation of exposure times;

                                (3)           use of respiratory protection equipment; or

                                (4)           other controls.

                B.            If the licensee or registrant performs an ALARA analysis to determine whether or not respirators should be used, the licensee or registrant may consider safety factors other than radiological factors. The licensee or registrant should also consider the impact of respirator use on workers' industrial health and safety.

[20.3.4.422 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.422 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.423             USE OF INDIVIDUAL RESPIRATORY PROTECTION EQUIPMENT:  The requirements of this section apply to licensees and registrants who assign or permit the use of respiratory protection equipment to limit the intake of radioactive material.

                A.            The licensee or registrant shall use only respiratory protection equipment that is tested and certified by the national institute for occupational safety and health (NIOSH) except as otherwise noted in this part.

                B.            If the licensee or registrant wishes to use equipment that has not been tested or certified by national institute for occupational safety and health (NIOSH), or for which there is no schedule for testing or certification, the licensee or registrant shall submit an application to the department for authorized use of this equipment except as provided in this part. The application shall include evidence that the material and performance characteristics of the equipment are capable of providing the proposed degree of protection under anticipated conditions of use. This shall be demonstrated either by testing made by the licensee or registrant, or on the basis of reliable test information.

                C.            The licensee or registrant shall implement and maintain a respiratory protection program that includes:

                                (1)           air sampling sufficient to identify the potential hazard, permit proper equipment selection and estimate doses;

                                (2)           surveys and bioassays, as necessary, to evaluate actual intakes;

                                (3)           testing of respirators for operability (user seal check for face sealing devices and functional check for others) immediately prior to each use;

                                (4)           written procedures regarding:

                                                (a)           monitoring, including air sampling and bioassays;

                                                (b)           supervision and training of respirator users;

                                                (c)           fit testing;

                                                (d)           respirator selection;

                                                (e)           breathing air quality;

                                                (f)            inventory and control;

                                                (g)           storage, issuance, maintenance, repair, testing and quality assurance of respiratory protection equipment;

                                                (h)           recordkeeping; and

                                                (i)            relief from respirator use and limitations on periods of respirator use;

                                (5)           determination by a physician that the individual user is medically fit to use respiratory protection equipment; before:

                                                (a)           the initial fitting of a face sealing respirator;

                                                (b)           before the first field use of non‑face sealing respirators; and

                                                (c)           either every 12 months thereafter, or periodically at a frequency determined by a physician;

                                (6)           fit testing, with fit factor greater than or equal to 10 times the APF for negative pressure devices, and a fit factor that is greater than or equal to 500 for any positive pressure, continuous flow, and pressure-demand devices, before the first field use of tight fitting, face-sealing respirators and periodically thereafter at a frequency not to exceed 1 year; fit testing shall be performed with the facepiece operating in the negative pressure mode.

                D.            The licensee or registrant shall advise each respirator user that the user may leave the area at any time for relief from respirator use in the event of equipment malfunction, physical or psychological distress, procedural or communication failure, significant deterioration of operating conditions or any other conditions that might require such relief.

                E.            The licensee or registrant shall also consider limitations appropriate to the type and mode of use. When selecting respiratory devices the licensee or registrant shall provide for vision correction, adequate communication, low temperature work environments and the concurrent use of other safety or radiological protection equipment. The licensee or registrant shall use equipment in such a way as not to interfere with the proper operation of the respirator.

                F.            Standby rescue persons are required whenever one-piece atmosphere-supplying suits, or any combination of supplied air respiratory protection device and personnel protective equipment are used from which an unaided individual would have difficulty extricating himself or herself. The standby persons shall be equipped with respiratory protection devices or other apparatus appropriate for the potential hazards. The standby rescue persons shall observe or otherwise maintain continuous communication with the workers (visual, voice, signal line, telephone, radio or other suitable means), and be immediately available to assist them in case of a failure of the air supply or for any other reason that requires relief from distress. A sufficient number of standby rescue persons shall be immediately available to assist all users of this type of equipment and to provide effective emergency rescue if needed.

                G.            Atmosphere-supplying respirators shall be supplied with respirable air of grade D quality or better as defined by the compressed gas association in publication G-7.1, commodity specification for air, 1997, and included in the regulations of the occupational safety and health administration at 29 CFR 1910.134(i)(1)(ii)(A) through (E).  Grade D quality air criteria include:

                                (1)           oxygen content (v/v) of 19.5-23.5 percent;

                                (2)           hydrocarbon (condensed) content of 5 milligrams per cubic meter of air or less;

                                (3)           carbon monoxide content of 10 parts per million (ppm) or less;

                                (4)           carbon dioxide content of 1,000 parts per million (ppm) or less; and

                                (5)           lack of noticeable odor.

                H.            The licensee or registrant shall ensure that no objects, materials or substances, such as facial hair, or any conditions that interfere with the face-facepiece seal or valve function, and that are under the control of the respirator wearer, are present between the skin of the wearer's face and the sealing surface of a tight-fitting respirator facepiece.

                I.             In estimating the dose to individuals from intake of airborne radioactive materials, the concentration of radioactive material in the air that is inhaled when respirators are worn is initially assumed to be the ambient concentration in air without respiratory protection, divided by the assigned protection factor.  If the dose is later found to be greater than the estimated dose, the corrected value shall be used.  If the dose is later found to be less than the estimated dose, the corrected value may be used.

                J.             Application for Use of Higher Assigned Protection Factors.  The licensee or registrant shall obtain authorization from the department before using assigned protection factors in excess of those specified in 20.3.4.460 NMAC.  The department may authorize a licensee or registrant to use higher assigned protection factors on receipt of an application that:

                                (1)           describes the situation for which a need exists for higher protection factors; and

                                (2)           demonstrates that the respiratory protection equipment provides these higher protection factors under the proposed conditions of use.

[20.3.4.423 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.423 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.424             FURTHER RESTRICTIONS ON THE USE OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTION EQUIPMENT:  The department may impose restrictions in addition to those in sections 20.3.4.422 NMAC, 20.3.4.423 NMAC and 20.3.4.460 NMAC, in order to:

                A.            ensure that the respiratory protection program of the licensee or registrant is adequate to limit doses to individuals from intakes of airborne radioactive materials consistent with maintaining total effective dose equivalent ALARA; and

                B.            limit the extent to which a licensee or registrant may use respiratory protection equipment instead of process or other engineering controls.

[20.3.4.424 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.424 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.425             SECURITY AND CONTROL OF LICENSED OR REGISTERED SOURCES OF RADIATION:

                A.            The licensee shall secure from unauthorized removal or access licensed materials that are stored in controlled or unrestricted areas. The licensee possessing category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive materials shall comply with 10 CFR 37. The licensee shall comply with 10 CFR 37 except as follows:

                                (1)           any reference to the commission or NRC shall be deemed a reference to the department;                                                 (2)           10 CFR 37.5 definitions of agreement state, byproduct material, commission and person shall not be applicable;

                                (3)           10 CFR 37.7, 10 CFR 37.9, 10 CFR 37.11(a) and (b), 10 CFR 37.13, 10 CFR 37.71, 10 CFR 37.105, and 10 CFR 37.107 shall not be applicable; and

                                (4)           for any reporting or notification requirements that the licensee must follow in 10 CFR 37.45, 10 CFR 37.57, 10 CFR 37.77(a) through (d), and 10 CFR 37.81, the licensee shall use the following address: New Mexico Environment Department/RCB, P.O. Box 5469, Santa Fe, NM 87502-5469 address information.

                B.            The licensee shall control and maintain constant surveillance, and use devices or administrative procedures to prevent unauthorized access to licensed radioactive material that is in a controlled or unrestricted area and that is not in storage.

                C.            The registrant shall secure registered radiation machines from unauthorized removal.

                D.            The registrant shall use devices or administrative procedures to prevent unauthorized use of registered radiation machines.

[20.3.4.425 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.425 NMAC, 04/30/2009; A, 06/13/2017]

 

20.3.4.426             RADIOLOGICAL CRITERIA FOR LICENSE TERMINATION:

                A.            General provisions and scope.

                                (1)           The criteria in this part apply to the decommissioning of any facility licensed under this chapter as well as other facilities subject to the department's jurisdiction under the Act.  For low-level waste disposal facilities licensed under 20.3.13 NMAC, the criteria apply only to ancillary surface facilities that support radioactive waste disposal activities.

                                (2)           The criteria in this section do not apply to sites which:

                                                (a)           have been decommissioned prior to the effective date of the rule; or,

                                                (b)           have previously submitted and received department approval on a license termination plan or decommissioning plan that is compatible with applicable department criteria.

                                (3)           After a site has been decommissioned and the license terminated in accordance with the criteria in this section, the department will require additional cleanup only if, based on new information, it determines that the criteria of this section were not met and residual radioactivity remaining at the site could result in significant threat to public health and safety.

                                (4)           When calculating TEDE to the average member of the critical group the licensee shall determine the peak annual TEDE dose expected within the first 1000 years after decommissioning.

                B.            Radiological criteria for unrestricted use. A site will be considered acceptable for unrestricted use if the residual radioactivity that is distinguishable from background radiation results in a TEDE to an average member of the critical group that does not exceed 25 millirems (0.25 millisievert) per year, including that from groundwater sources of drinking water, and the residual radioactivity has been reduced to levels that are ALARA. Determination of the levels which are ALARA must take into account consideration of any detriments, such as deaths from transportation accidents, expected to potentially result from decontamination and waste disposal.

                C.            Criteria for License Termination under Restricted Conditions. A site will be considered acceptable for license termination under restricted conditions if:

                                (1)           the licensee can demonstrate that further reductions in residual radioactivity necessary to comply with the provisions of Subsection B of this section would result in net public or environmental harm or were not being made because the residual levels associated with restricted conditions are ALARA; determination of the levels which are ALARA must take into account consideration of any detriments, such as traffic accidents, expected to potentially result from decontamination and waste disposal;

                                (2)           the licensee has made provisions for legally enforceable institutional controls that provide reasonable assurance that the TEDE from residual radioactivity distinguishable from background to the average member of the critical group will not exceed 25 millirems (0.25 millisievert) per year;

                                (3)           the licensee has provided sufficient financial assurance to enable an independent third party, including a governmental custodian of a site, to assume and carry out responsibilities for any necessary control and maintenance of the site; acceptable financial assurance mechanisms are:

                                                (a)           funds placed into a trust segregated from the licensee's assets and outside the licensee's administrative control, and in which the adequacy of the trust funds is to be assessed based on an assumed annual one percent real rate of return on investment;

                                                (b)           surety method, insurance, or other guarantee method as described in Paragraph (2) of Subsection F of 20.3.3.311 NMAC;

                                                (c)           a statement of intent in the case of federal, state, or local government licensees, as described in Paragraph (4) of Subsection F of 20.3.3.311 NMAC; or

                                                (d)           when a governmental entity is assuming custody and ownership of a site, an arrangement that is deemed acceptable by such governmental entity;

                                (4)           the licensee has submitted a decommissioning plan or license termination plan to the department indicating the licensee's intent to decommission in accordance with Subsection E of 20.3.3.318 NMAC, and specifying that the licensee intends to decommission by restricting use of the site; the licensee shall document in the license termination plan or decommissioning plan how the advice of individuals and institutions in the community who may be affected by the decommissioning has been sought and incorporated, as appropriate, following analysis of that advice:

                                                (a)           licensees proposing to decommission by restricting use of the site shall seek advice from such affected parties regarding the following matters concerning the proposed decommissioning:

                                                                (i)            whether provisions for institutional controls proposed by the licensee: 1) will provide reasonable assurance that the TEDE from residual radioactivity distinguishable from background to the average member of the critical group will not exceed 25 millirems (0.25 millisievert) TEDE per year; 2) will be enforceable; and 3) will not impose undue burdens on the local community or other affected parties;

                                                                (ii)           whether the licensee has provided sufficient financial assurance to enable an independent third party, including a governmental custodian of a site, to assume and carry out responsibilities for any necessary control and maintenance of the site;

                                                (b)           in seeking advice on the issues identified in Subparagraph (a) of this paragraph, the licensee shall provide for:

                                                                (i)            participation by representatives of a broad cross section of community interests who may be affected by the decommissioning;

                                                                (ii)           an opportunity for a comprehensive, collective discussion on the issues by the participants represented; and

                                                                (iii)         a publicly available summary of the results of all such discussions, including a description of the individual viewpoints of the participants on the issues and the extent of agreement and disagreement among the participants on the issues; and

                                (5)           residual radioactivity at the site has been reduced so that if the institutional controls were no longer in effect, there is reasonable assurance that the TEDE from residual radioactivity distinguishable from background to the average member of the critical group is ALARA and would not exceed either:

                                                (a)           100 millirems (1 millisievert) per year; or

                                                (b)           500 millirems (5 millisieverts) per year provided the licensee:

                                                                (i)            demonstrates that further reductions in residual radioactivity necessary to comply with the 100 millirems per year (1 millisievert per year) value of Subparagraph (a) of this paragraph are not technically achievable, would be prohibitively expensive, or would result in net public or environmental harm;

                                                                (ii)           makes provisions for durable institutional controls; and

                                                                (iii)         provides sufficient financial assurance to enable a responsible government entity or independent third party, including a governmental custodian of a site, both to carry out periodic rechecks of the site no less frequently than every five years to assure that the institutional controls remain in place as necessary to meet the criteria of Paragraph (2) of this subsection and to assume and carry out responsibilities for any necessary control and maintenance of those controls; acceptable financial assurance mechanisms are those in Paragraph (3) of this subsection.

                D.            Alternate Criteria for License Termination.

                                (1)           The department may terminate a license using alternate criteria greater than the dose criterion of Subsection B of this section, Paragraph (2) of Subsection C of this section, and Item (i) of Subparagraph (a) of Paragraph (4) of Subsection C of this section, if the licensee:

                                                (a)           provides assurance that public health and safety would continue to be protected, and that it is unlikely that the dose from all man-made sources combined, other than medical, would be more than the 100 millirems per year (1 millisievert per year) limit of 20.3.4.413 NMAC, by submitting an analysis of possible sources of exposure;

                                                (b)           has employed to the extent practical restrictions on site use according to the provisions of Subsection C of this section in minimizing exposures at the site;

                                                (c)           reduces doses to ALARA levels, taking into consideration any detriments such as traffic accidents expected to potentially result from decontamination and waste disposal; and

                                                (d)           has submitted a decommissioning plan or license termination plan to the department indicating the licensee's intent to decommission in accordance with Subsection E of 20.3.3.318 NMAC, and specifying that the licensee proposes to decommission by use of alternate criteria; the licensee shall document in the decommissioning plan or license termination plan how the advice of individuals and institutions in the community who may be affected by the decommissioning has been sought and addressed, as appropriate, following analysis of that advice; in seeking such advice, the licensee shall provide for:

                                                                (i)            participation by representatives of a broad cross section of community interests who may be affected by the decommissioning;

                                                                (ii)           an opportunity for a comprehensive, collective discussion on the issues by the participants represented; and

                                                                (iii)         a publicly available summary of the results of all such discussions, including a description of the individual viewpoints of the participants on the issues and the extent of agreement and disagreement among the participants on the issues.

                                                (e)           Has provided sufficient financial assurance in the form of a trust fund to enable

an independent third party, including a governmental custodian of a site, to assume and carry out responsibilities for any necessary control and maintenance of the site.

                                (2)           The use of alternate criteria to terminate a license requires the approval of the department after consideration of the department staff's recommendations that will address any comments provided by state and federal agencies and any public comments submitted pursuant to Subsection E of this section.

                E.            Public Notification and Public Participation. Upon the receipt of a license termination plan or decommissioning plan from the licensee, or a proposal by the licensee for release of a site pursuant to Subsection C or D of this section, or whenever the department deems such notice to be in the public interest, the department shall:

                                (1)           notify and solicit comments from:

                                                (a)           local governments in the vicinity of the site and any Indian nation or other indigenous people that have treaty or statutory rights that could be affected by the decommissioning; and

                                                (b)           the EPA for cases where the licensee proposes to release a site pursuant to Subsection D of this section; and

                                (2)           publish a notice in the state register and in a forum, such as local newspapers, letters to state or local organizations, or other appropriate forum, that is readily accessible to individuals in the vicinity of the site, and solicit comments from the public and affected parties; further, that the public notice may be published in any language when appropriate.

                F.            Minimization of contamination. Licensee shall, to the extent practical, conduct operations to minimize the introduction of residual radioactivity into the site, including the subsurface, in accordance with the existing radiation protection requirements in 20.3.4.404 NMAC and the radiological criteria for license termination in 20.3.4.426 NMAC.

[20.3.4.426 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.426 NMAC, 04/30/2009; A, 06/13/2017]

 

20.3.4.427             CAUTION SIGNS:

                A.            Standard Radiation Symbol. Unless otherwise authorized by the department, the symbol prescribed by this section shall use the colors magenta, purple or black on yellow background. The symbol prescribed is the three-bladed design as follows:

                                (1)           cross-hatched area is to be magenta, purple or black; and

                                (2)           the background is to be yellow.

 

                B.            Exception to Color Requirements for Standard Radiation Symbol. Notwithstanding the requirements of Subsection A of this section, licensees or registrants are authorized to label sources, source holders or device components containing sources of radiation that are subjected to high temperatures, with conspicuously etched or stamped radiation caution symbols and without a color requirement.

                C.            Additional Information on Signs and Labels. In addition to the contents of signs and labels prescribed in this part, the licensee or registrant shall provide, on or near the required signs and labels, additional information, as appropriate, to make individuals aware of potential radiation exposures and to minimize the exposures.

[20.3.4.427 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.427 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.428             POSTING REQUIREMENTS:

                A.            Posting of Radiation Areas. The licensee or registrant shall post each radiation area with a conspicuous sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and the words “Caution, Radiation Area.”

                B.            Posting of High Radiation Areas. The licensee or registrant shall post each high radiation area with a conspicuous sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and the words “Caution, High Radiation Area” or “Danger, High Radiation Area.”

                C.            Posting of Very High Radiation Areas. The licensee or registrant shall post each very high radiation area with a conspicuous sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and words “Grave Danger, Very High Radiation Area.”

                D.            Posting of Airborne Radioactivity Areas. The licensee or registrant shall post each airborne radioactivity area with a conspicuous sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and the words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area.”

                E.            Posting of Areas or Rooms in Which Licensed or Registered Material is Used or Stored. The licensee or registrant shall post each area or room in which there is used or stored an amount of licensed or registered material exceeding 10 times the quantity of such material specified in 20.3.4.462 NMAC with a conspicuous sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and the words “Caution, Radioactive Material” or “Danger, Radioactive Material.”

[20.3.4.428 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.428 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.429             EXCEPTIONS TO POSTING REQUIREMENTS:

                A.            A licensee or registrant is not required to post caution signs in areas or rooms containing sources of radiation for periods of less than 8 hours, if each of the following conditions is met:

                                (1)           the sources of radiation are constantly attended during these periods by an individual who takes the precautions necessary to prevent the exposure of individuals to sources of radiation in excess of the limits established in this part; and

                                (2)           the area or room is subject to the licensee's or registrant's control.

                B.            Rooms or other areas in hospitals that are occupied by patients are not required to be posted with caution signs pursuant to 20.3.4.428 NMAC provided that the patient could be released from licensee control pursuant to Subsection I of 20.3.7.703 NMAC.

                C.            A room or area is not required to be posted with a caution sign because of the presence of a sealed source provided the radiation level at 30 centimeters from the surface of the sealed source container or housing does not exceed 0.005 rem (0.05 millisievert) per hour.

                D.            A room or area is not required to be posted with a caution sign because of the presence of radiation machines provided the radiation level at 30 centimeters from the radiation machine housing does not exceed 0.005 rem (0.05 millisievert) per hour.

                E.            Rooms in hospitals or clinics that are used for teletherapy are exempt from the requirement to post caution signs under 20.3.4.428 NMAC if:

                                (1)           access to the room is controlled pursuant to Subsection E of 20.3.7.711 NMAC; and

                                (2)           personnel in attendance take necessary precautions to prevent the inadvertent exposure of workers, other patients and members of the public to radiation in excess of the limits established in this part.

[20.3.4.429 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.429 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.430             LABELING CONTAINERS AND RADIATION MACHINES:

                A.            The licensee or registrant shall ensure that each container of licensed or registered material bears a durable, clearly visible label bearing the radiation symbol and the words “Caution, Radioactive Material” or “Danger, Radioactive Material.” The label shall also provide information, such as the radionuclides present, an estimate of the quantity of radioactivity, the date for which the activity is estimated, radiation levels, kinds of materials and mass enrichment, to permit individuals handling or using the containers, or working in the vicinity of the containers, to take precautions to avoid or minimize exposures.

                B.            Each licensee or registrant shall, prior to removal or disposal of empty uncontaminated containers to unrestricted areas, remove or deface the radioactive material label or otherwise clearly indicate that the container no longer contains radioactive materials.

                C.            Each registrant shall ensure that each radiation machine is labeled in a conspicuous manner which cautions individuals that radiation is produced when it is energized.

[20.3.4.430 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.430 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.431             EXEMPTIONS TO LABELING REQUIREMENTS:  A licensee is not required to label:

                A.            containers holding licensed material in quantities less than the quantities listed in 20.3.4.462 NMAC;

                B.            containers holding licensed material in concentrations less than those specified in table III of 20.3.4.461 NMAC;

                C.            containers attended by an individual who takes the precautions necessary to prevent the exposure of individuals in excess of the limits established by this part;

                D.            containers when they are in transport and packaged and labeled in accordance with the regulations of the DOT (labeling of packages containing radioactive materials is required by the DOT if the amount and type of radioactive material exceeds the limits for an excepted quantity or article as defined and limited by DOT regulations 49 CFR 173.403 (m) and (w) and 173.421-424);

                E.            containers that are accessible only to individuals authorized to handle or use them, or to work in the vicinity of the containers, if the contents are identified to these individuals by a readily available written record; examples of containers of this type are containers in locations such as water-filled canals, storage vaults or hot cells; the record shall be retained as long as the containers are in use for the purpose indicated on the record; or

                F.            installed manufacturing or process equipment, such as piping and tanks.

[20.3.4.431 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.431 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.432             PROCEDURES FOR RECEIVING AND OPENING PACKAGES:

                A.            Each licensee who expects to receive a package containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a type A quantity, as defined in Subsection A of 20.3.3.306 NMAC, incorporating 10 CFR 71.4 and Appendix A of 10 CFR 71, shall make arrangements to receive:

                                (1)           the package when the carrier offers it for delivery; or

                                (2)           the notification of the arrival of the package at the carrier's terminal and to take possession of the package expeditiously.

                B.            Each licensee shall:

                                (1)           monitor the external surfaces of a labeled (with a radioactive white I, yellow II or yellow III label as specified in DOT regulations 49 CFR 172.403 and 172.436-440) package for radioactive contamination unless the package contains only radioactive material in the form of gas or in special form as defined in 10 CFR 71.4;

                                (2)           monitor the external surfaces of a labeled package for radiation levels unless the package contains quantities of radioactive material that are less than or equal to the type A quantity, as defined in Subsection A of 20.3.3.306 NMAC, incorporating 10 CFR 71.4 and Appendix A to 10 CFR 71; and

                                (3)           monitor all packages known to contain radioactive material for radioactive contamination and radiation levels if there is evidence of degradation of package integrity, such as packages that are crushed, wet or damaged.

                C.            The licensee shall perform the monitoring required by Subsection B of this section as soon as practicable after receipt of the package, but not later than 3 hours after the package is received at the licensee's facility if it is received during the licensee's normal working hours. If a package is received after working hours, the package shall be monitored no later than three hours from the beginning of the next working day.

                D.            The licensee shall immediately notify the final delivery carrier and, by telephone and written communication which can include e-mail, telegram, mailgram or facsimile, the department when:

                                (1)           removable radioactive surface contamination exceeds the limits of 20.3.3.306 NMAC, incorporating 10 CFR 71.87(i); or

                                (2)           external radiation levels exceed the limits of 20.3.3.306 NMAC, incorporating 10 CFR 71.47.

                E.            Each licensee shall:

                                (1)           establish, maintain and retain written procedures for safely opening packages in which radioactive material is received; and

                                (2)           ensure that the procedures are followed and that due consideration is given to special instructions for the type of package being opened.

                F.            Licensees transferring special form sources in vehicles owned or operated by the licensee to and from a work site are exempt from the contamination monitoring requirements of Subsection B of this section, but are not exempt from the survey requirement in Subsection B of this section for measuring radiation levels that ensures that the source is still properly lodged in its shield.

[20.3.4.432 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.432 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.433             WASTE DISPOSAL - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS:

                A.            A licensee shall dispose of licensed material only:

                                (1)           by transfer to an authorized recipient as provided in 20.3.4.438 NMAC or 20.3.3 NMAC, or to the DOE;

                                (2)           by decay in storage;

                                (3)           by release in effluents within the limits in 20.3.4.413 NMAC; or

                                (4)           as authorized pursuant to 20.3.4.434 NMAC, 20.3.4.435 NMAC, 20.3.4.436 NMAC or 20.3.4.437 NMAC and in accordance with 20.3.4.439 NMAC.

                B.            A person shall be specifically licensed to receive waste containing licensed material from other persons for:

                                (1)           treatment prior to disposal;

                                (2)           treatment or disposal by incineration;

                                (3)           decay in storage;

                                (4)           disposal at a land disposal facility licensed pursuant to 20.3.13 NMAC;

                                (5)           storage until transferred to a storage or disposal facility authorized to receive the waste; or

                                (6)           disposal at a geologic repository under 10 CFR 60 or 10 CFR 63, specifically licensed by NRC.

[20.3.4.433 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.433 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.434             METHOD FOR OBTAINING APPROVAL OF PROPOSED DISPOSAL PROCEDURES:  A licensee or applicant for a license may apply to the department for approval of proposed procedures, not otherwise authorized in these regulations, to dispose of licensed material generated in the licensee's activities. Each application shall include:

                A.            a description of the waste containing licensed material to be disposed of, including the physical and chemical properties important to risk evaluation, and the proposed manner and conditions of waste disposal;

                B.            an analysis and evaluation of pertinent information on the nature of the environment;

                C.            the nature and location of other potentially affected licensed and unlicensed facilities; and

                D.            analyses and procedures to ensure that doses are maintained ALARA and within the dose limits in this part.

[20.3.4.434 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.434 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.435             DISPOSAL BY RELEASE INTO SANITARY SEWAGE:

                A.            A licensee may discharge licensed material into sanitary sewerage if each of the following conditions is satisfied:

                                (1)           the material is readily soluble, or is readily dispersible biological material, in water;

                                (2)           the quantity of licensed or other radioactive material that the licensee releases into the sewer in 1 month divided by the average monthly volume of water released into the sewer by the licensee does not exceed the concentration listed in table III of 20.3.4.461 NMAC;

                                (3)           if more than one radionuclide is released, the following conditions must also be satisfied:

                                                (a)           the licensee shall determine the fraction of the limit in table III of 20.3.4.461 NMAC represented by discharges into sanitary sewerage by dividing the actual monthly average concentration of each radionuclide released by the licensee or registrant into the sewer by the concentration of that radionuclide listed in table III of 20.3.4.461 NMAC; and

                                                (b)           the sum of the fractions for each radionuclide required by Subparagraph (a) of Paragraph (3) of this subsection does not exceed unity; and

                                (4)           the total quantity of licensed or other radioactive material that the licensee releases into the sanitary sewerage in a year does not exceed 5 curies (185 gigabecquerels) of hydrogen-3, 1 curie (37 gigabecquerels) of carbon-14, and 1 curie (37 gigabecquerels) of all other radioactive materials combined.

                B.            Excreta from individuals undergoing medical diagnosis or therapy with radioactive material are not subject to the limitations contained in Subsection A of this section.

[20.3.4.435 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.435 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.436             TREATMENT OR DISPOSAL BY INCINERATION:  A licensee may treat or dispose of licensed  material by incineration only in the form and concentration specified in 20.3.4.437 NMAC or as specifically approved by the department pursuant to 20.3.4.434 NMAC.

[20.3.4.436 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.436 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.437             DISPOSAL OF SPECIFIC WASTES:

                A.            A licensee may dispose of the following licensed material as if it were not radioactive:

                                (1)           0.05 microcurie (1.85 kilobecquerels), or less, of hydrogen-3 or carbon-14 per gram of medium used for liquid scintillation counting; and

                                (2)           0.05 microcurie (1.85 kilobecquerels), or less, of hydrogen-3 or carbon-14 per gram of animal tissue, averaged over the weight of the entire animal.

                B.            A licensee shall not dispose of tissue pursuant to Paragraph (2) of Subsection A of this section in a manner that would permit its use either as food for humans or as animal feed.

                C.            Disposal of Certain Byproduct Material.

                                (1)           Licensed material as defined in Paragraphs (3), (4) and (5) of the definition of byproduct material set forth in 20.3.1.7 NMAC may be disposed of in accordance with 20.3.13 NMAC even though it is not defined as low-level radioactive waste. Therefore, any licensed radioactive material being disposed of at a facility, or transferred for ultimate disposal at a facility licensed under 20.3.13 NMAC, must meet the requirements of 20.3.4.438 NMAC.

                                (2)           A licensee may dispose of byproduct material as defined in Paragraphs (3), (4) and (5) of the definition of byproduct material set forth in 20.3.1.7 NMAC, at a disposal facility authorize to dispose of such material in accordance with any federal or state solid or hazardous waste law, including the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as authorized under the Energy Policy Act.

                D.            The licensee shall maintain records of disposal in accordance with 20.3.4.448 NMAC.

[20.3.4.437 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.437 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.438             TRANSFER FOR DISPOSAL AND MANIFESTS:

                A.            The requirements of this section and 20.3.4.466 NMAC are designed to:

                                (1)           control transfers of low-level radioactive waste by any waste generator, waste collector or waste processor licensee, as defined in 20.3.4.466 NMAC (appendix G), who ships low-level waste either directly or indirectly through a waste collector, waste broker or waste processor, to a licensed low-level waste land disposal facility (as defined in 20.3.13 NMAC);

                                (2)           establish a manifest tracking system; and

                                (3)           supplement existing requirements concerning transfers and record keeping for those wastes.

                B.            Each shipment of radioactive waste intended for disposal at a licensed land disposal facility must be accompanied by a shipment manifest, which contains all the information on the NRC's uniform low-level radioactive waste manifest (see 20.3.4.466 NMAC).

                C.            Any licensee shipping radioactive waste intended for ultimate disposal at a licensed land disposal facility must document the information required on NRC's uniform low-level radioactive waste manifest and transfer this recorded manifest information to the intended consignee in accordance with 20.3.4.466 NMAC.

                D.            Each shipment manifest must include a certification by the waste generator as specified in Subsection B of 20.3.4.466 NMAC.

                E.            Each person involved in the transfer for disposal and disposal of waste, including the waste generator, waste collector, waste processor and disposal facility operator, shall comply with the requirements specified in Subsection C of 20.3.4.466 NMAC.

                F.            Any licensee shipping byproduct material as defined in Paragraphs (3), (4) and (5) of the definition of byproduct material set forth in 20.3.4.7 NMAC intended for ultimate disposal at a land disposal facility licensed under 20.3.13 NMAC must document the information required on the NRC’s uniform low-level radioactive waste manifest and transfer this recorded manifest information to the intended consignee in accordance with 20.3.4.466 NMAC.

[20.3.4.438 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.438 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.439             COMPLIANCE WITH ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH PROTECTION REGULATIONS:  Nothing in sections 20.3.4.433 NMAC, 20.3.4.434 NMAC, 20.3.4.435 NMAC, 20.3.4.436 NMAC, 20.3.4.437 NMAC or 20.3.4.438 NMAC relieves the licensee from complying with other applicable federal, state and local regulations governing any other toxic or hazardous properties of materials that may be disposed of under these sections.

[20.3.4.439 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.439 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.440             RECORDS - GENERAL PROVISIONS:

                A.            Each licensee or registrant shall use the units: curie, rad, rem, including multiples and subdivisions, and shall clearly indicate the units of all quantities on records required by this part.

                B.            In the records required by this part, the licensee or registrant may record quantities in SI units in parentheses following each of the units specified in Subsection A of this section. However, all quantities must be recorded as stated in Subsection A of this section.

                C.            Notwithstanding the requirements of Subsection A of this section, when recording information on shipment manifests, as required in Subsection B of 20.3.4.438 NMAC, information must be recorded in the international system of units (SI) or in SI and the units as specified in Subsection A of this section.

                D.            The licensee or registrant shall make a clear distinction among the quantities entered on the records required by this part (e.g., total effective dose equivalent, shallow-dose equivalent, lens dose equivalent, deep-dose equivalent, committed effective dose equivalent).

[20.3.4.440 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.440 NMAC, 04/30/2009; A, 06/30/2011]

 

20.3.4.441             RECORDS OF RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS:

                A.            Each licensee or registrant shall maintain records of the radiation protection program, including:

                                (1)           the provisions of the program; and

                                (2)           audits and other reviews of program content and implementation.

                B.            The licensee or registrant shall retain the records required by Paragraph (1) of Subsection A of this section until the department terminates each pertinent license or registration requiring the record. The licensee or registrant shall retain the records required by Paragraph (2) of Subsection A of this section for 3 years after the record is made.

[20.3.4.441 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.441 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.442             RECORDS OF SURVEYS:

                A.            Each licensee or registrant shall maintain records showing the results of surveys and calibrations required by 20.3.4.416 NMAC and Subsection B of 20.3.4.432 NMAC. The licensee or registrant shall retain these records for 3 years after the record is made.

                B.            The licensee or registrant shall retain each of the following records until the department terminates each pertinent license or registration requiring the record:

                                (1)           records of the results of surveys to determine the dose from external sources of radiation and used, in the absence of or in combination with individual monitoring data, in the assessment of individual dose equivalents;

                                (2)           records of the results of measurements and calculations used to determine individual intakes of radioactive material and used in the assessment of internal dose;

                                (3)           records showing the results of air sampling, surveys and bioassays required pursuant to Subparagraphs (a) and (b) of Paragraph (3) of Subsection A of 20.3.4.423 NMAC;

                                (4)           records of the results of measurements and calculations used to evaluate the release of radioactive effluents to the environment; and

                                (5)           records from surveys describing the location and amount of subsurface residual radioactivity identified at the site must be kept with records important for decommissioning, and such records must be retained in accordance with 20.3.3 NMAC as applicable.

[20.3.4.442 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.442 NMAC, 04/30/2009; A, 06/13/2017]

 

20.3.4.443             RECORDS OF TESTS FOR LEAKAGE OR CONTAMINATION OF SEALED SOURCES:  Records of tests for leakage or contamination of sealed sources required by 20.3.4.415 NMAC shall be kept in units of microcurie or becquerel, and maintained for inspection by the department for 5 years after the records are made.

[20.3.4.443 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.443 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.444             RECORDS OF PRIOR OCCUPATIONAL DOSE:

                A.            The licensee or registrant shall retain the records of prior occupational dose and exposure history as specified in 20.3.4.409 NMAC on department form cumulative occupational dose history or equivalent until the department terminates each pertinent license or registration requiring this record. The licensee or registrant shall retain records used in preparing department form cumulative occupational dose history or equivalent for 3 years after the record is made.

                B.            Upon termination of the license or registration, the licensee or registrant shall permanently store records on department form cumulative occupational dose history or equivalent, or shall make provision with the department for transfer to the department.

[20.3.4.444 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.444 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.445             RECORDS OF PLANNED SPECIAL EXPOSURES:

                A.            For each use of the provisions of 20.3.4.410 NMAC for planned special exposures, the licensee or registrant shall maintain records that describe:

                                (1)           the exceptional circumstances requiring the use of a planned special exposure;

                                (2)           the name of the management official who authorized the planned special exposure and a copy of the signed authorization;

                                (3)           what actions were necessary;

                                (4)           why the actions were necessary;

                                (5)           what precautions were taken to assure that doses were maintained ALARA;

                                (6)           what individual and collective doses were expected to result; and

                                (7)           the doses actually received in the planned special exposure.

                B.            The licensee or registrant shall retain the records until the department terminates each pertinent license or registration requiring these records.

                C.            Upon termination of the license or registration, the licensee or registrant shall permanently store records on department form cumulative occupational dose history or equivalent, or shall make provision with the department for transfer to the department.

[20.3.4.445 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.445 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.446             RECORDS OF INDIVIDUAL MONITORING RESULTS:

                A.            Record Keeping Requirement. Each licensee or registrant shall maintain records of doses received by all individuals for whom monitoring was required pursuant to 20.3.4.417 NMAC, and records of doses received during planned special exposures, accidents and emergency conditions. Assessments of dose equivalent and records made using units in effect before May 3, 1995 (see 20.3.4 NMAC codified as of May 3, 1995) need not be changed. These records shall include, when applicable:

                                (1)           the deep dose equivalent to the whole body, lens dose equivalent, shallow dose equivalent to the skin and shallow dose equivalent to the extremities;

                                (2)           the estimated intake of radionuclides (see 20.3.4.406 NMAC);

                                (3)           the committed effective dose equivalent assigned to the intake of radionuclides;

                                (4)           the specific information used to assess the committed effective dose equivalent pursuant to Subsections A and C of 20.3.4.408 NMAC, and when required by 20.3.4.417 NMAC;

                                (5)           the total effective dose equivalent when required by 20.3.4.406 NMAC; and

                                (6)           the total of the deep dose equivalent and the committed dose to the organ receiving the highest total dose.

                B.            Record Keeping Frequency. The licensee or registrant shall make entries of the records specified in Subsection A of this section at intervals not to exceed 1 year.

                C.            Record Keeping Format. The licensee or registrant shall maintain the records specified in Subsection A of this section on department form occupational dose record for a monitoring period, in accordance with the instructions to the form, or in clear and legible records containing all the information required by the form.

                D.            The licensee or registrant shall maintain the records of dose to an embryo/fetus with the records of dose to the declared pregnant woman. The declaration of pregnancy, including the estimated date of conception, shall also be kept on file, but may be maintained separately from the dose records.

                E.            The licensee or registrant shall retain each required form or record until the department terminates each pertinent license or registration requiring the record.

                F.            Upon termination of the license or registration, the licensee or registrant shall permanently store records on department form cumulative occupational dose history or equivalent, or shall make provision with the department for transfer to the department.

                G.            Privacy Protection. The records required under this section should be protected from public disclosure because of their personal and private nature.

[20.3.4.446 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.446 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.447             RECORDS OF DOSE TO INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC:

                A.            Each licensee or registrant shall maintain records sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the dose limit for individual members of the public (see 20.3.4.413 NMAC).

                B.            The licensee or registrant shall retain the records required by Subsection A of this section until the department terminates each pertinent license or registration requiring the record.

[20.3.4.447 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.447 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.448             RECORDS OF WASTE DISPOSAL:

                A.            Each licensee shall maintain records of the disposal of licensed materials made pursuant to 20.3.4.434 NMAC, 20.3.4.435 NMAC, 20.3.4.436 NMAC, 20.3.4.437 NMAC and 20.3.3 NMAC.

                B.            Each registrant shall maintain records of the disposal of radiation machines.

                C.            The licensee or registrant shall retain the records required by Subsections A and B of this section until the department terminates each pertinent license or registration requiring the record.

[20.3.4.448 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.448 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.449             [RESERVED]

 

20.3.4.450             FORM OF RECORDS: Each record required by this part shall be legible throughout the specified retention period. The record shall be the original or a reproduced copy or a microform, provided that the copy or microform is authenticated by authorized personnel and that the microform is capable of producing a clear copy throughout the required retention period or the record may also be stored in electronic media with the capability for producing legible, accurate and complete records during the required retention period. Records, such as letters, drawings and specifications, shall include all pertinent information, such as stamps, initials and signatures. The licensee or registrant shall maintain adequate safeguards against tampering with and loss of records.

[20.3.4.450 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.450 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.451             REPORTS OF STOLEN, LOST OR MISSING LICENSED OR REGISTERED SOURCES OF RADIATION:

                A.            Telephone Reports. Each licensee shall report to the department by telephone as follows:

                                (1)           immediately after its occurrence becomes known to the licensee, stolen, lost or missing licensed radioactive material in an aggregate quantity equal to or greater than 1,000 times the quantity specified in 20.3.4.462 NMAC under such circumstances that it appears to the licensee that an exposure could result to individuals in unrestricted areas; or

                                (2)           within 30 days after its occurrence becomes known to the licensee, lost, stolen or missing licensed radioactive material in an aggregate quantity greater than 10 times the quantity 20.3.4.462 NMAC that is still missing;

                                (3)           each registrant shall report immediately after its occurrence becomes known to the registrant, a stolen, lost or missing radiation machine.

                B.            Written Reports. Each licensee or registrant required to make a report pursuant to Subsection A of this section shall, within 30 days after making the telephone report, make a written report to the department setting forth the following information:

                                (1)           a description of the licensed or registered source of radiation involved, including, for radioactive material, the kind, quantity, and chemical and physical form; and, for radiation machines, the manufacturer, model and serial number, type and maximum energy of radiation emitted;

                                (2)           a description of the circumstances under which the loss or theft occurred;

                                (3)           a statement of disposition, or probable disposition, of the licensed or registered source of radiation involved;

                                (4)           exposures of individuals to radiation, circumstances under which the exposures occurred, and the possible total effective dose equivalent to persons in unrestricted areas;

                                (5)           actions that have been taken, or will be taken, to recover the source of radiation; and

                                (6)           procedures or measures that have been, or will be, adopted to ensure against a recurrence of the loss or theft of licensed or registered sources of radiation.

                C.            Subsequent to filing the written report, the licensee or registrant shall also report additional substantive information on the loss or theft within 30 days after the licensee or registrant learns of such information.

                D.            The licensee or registrant shall prepare any report filed with the department pursuant to this section so that names of individuals who may have received exposure to radiation are stated in a separate and detachable portion of the report.

[20.3.4.451 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.451 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.452             NOTIFICATION OF INCIDENTS:

                A.            Immediate Notification. Notwithstanding other requirements for notification, each licensee or registrant shall immediately report each event involving a source of radiation possessed by the licensee or registrant that may have caused or threatens to cause any of the following conditions:

                                (1)           an individual to receive:

                                                (a)           a total effective dose equivalent of 25 rems (0.25 sievert) or more; or

                                                (b)           a lens dose equivalent of 75 rems (0.75 sievert) or more; or

                                                (c)           a shallow dose equivalent to the skin or extremities or a total organ dose equivalent of 250 rads (2.5 grays) or more; or

                                (2)           the release of radioactive material, inside or outside of a restricted area, so that, had an individual been present for 24 hours, the individual could have received an intake five times the occupational ALI; this provision does not apply to locations where personnel are not normally stationed during routine operations, such as hot-cells or process enclosures.

                B.            Twenty-Four Hour Notification. Each licensee or registrant shall, within 24 hours of discovery of the event, report to the department each event involving loss of control of a licensed or registered source of radiation possessed by the licensee or registrant that may have caused, or threatens to cause, any of the following conditions:

                                (1)           an individual to receive, in a period of 24 hours:

                                                (a)           a total effective dose equivalent exceeding 5 rems (0.05 sievert); or

                                                (b)           a lens dose equivalent exceeding 15 rems (0.15 sievert); or

                                                (c)           a shallow dose equivalent to the skin or extremities or a total organ dose equivalent exceeding 50 rems (0.5 sievert); or

                                (2)           the release of radioactive material, inside or outside of a restricted area, so that, had an individual been present for 24 hours, the individual could have received an intake in excess of one occupational ALI; this provision does not apply to locations where personnel are not normally stationed during routine operations, such as hot-cells or process enclosures.

                C.            The licensee or registrant shall prepare each report filed with the department pursuant to this section so that names of individuals who have received exposure to sources of radiation are stated in a separate and detachable portion of the report.

                D.            Licensees and registrants shall make the reports required by Subsections A and B of this section to the department by telephone, and shall confirm the initial contact by e-mail, telegram, mailgram or facsimile to the department.

                E.            The provisions of this section do not apply to doses that result from planned special exposures, provided such doses are within the limits for planned special exposures and are reported pursuant to 20.3.4.454 NMAC.

[20.3.4.452 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.452 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.453             REPORTS OF EXPOSURES, RADIATION LEVELS AND CONCENTRATIONS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL EXCEEDING THE CONSTRAINTS OR LIMITS:

                A.            Reportable Events. In addition to the notification required by 20.3.4.452 NMAC, each licensee or registrant shall submit a written report within 30 days after learning of any of the following occurrences:

                                (1)           incidents for which notification is required by 20.3.4.452 NMAC; or

                                (2)           doses in excess of any of the following:

                                                (a)           the occupational dose limits for adults in 20.3.4.452 NMAC;

                                                (b)           the occupational dose limits for a minor in 20.3.4.411 NMAC;

                                                (c)           the limits for an embryo/fetus of a declared pregnant woman in 20.3.4.412 NMAC;

                                                (d)           the limits for an individual member of the public in 20.3.4.413 NMAC;

                                                (e)           the limit in the license or registration; or

                                                (f)            the ALARA constraints for air emissions established under Subsection D of 20.3.4.404 NMAC; or

                                (3)           levels of radiation or concentrations of radioactive material in:

                                                (a)           a restricted area in excess of applicable limits in the license or registration; or

                                                (b)           an unrestricted area in excess of 10 times the applicable limit set forth in this part (20.3.4 NMAC) or in the license or registration, whether or not involving exposure of any individual in excess of the limits in 20.3.4.413 NMAC; or

                                (4)           for licensees subject to the provisions of EPA generally applicable environmental radiation standards in 40 CFR 190, levels of radiation or releases of radioactive material in excess of those standards, or of license conditions related to those standards.

                B.            Content of Report.

                                (1)           Each report required by Subsection A of this section shall describe the extent of exposure of individuals to radiation and radioactive material, including, as appropriate:

                                                (a)           estimates of each individual's dose;

                                                (b)           the levels of radiation and concentrations of radioactive material involved;

                                                (c)           the cause of the elevated exposures, dose rates or concentrations; and

                                                (d)           corrective steps taken or planned to ensure against a recurrence, including the schedule for achieving conformance with applicable limits, ALARA constraints, generally applicable environmental standards and associated license or registration conditions.

                                (2)           Each report filed pursuant to Subsection A of this section shall include for each occupationally overexposed individual: the name, social security account number and date of birth. With respect to the limit for the embryo/fetus set forth in 20.3.4.412 NMAC, the identifiers should be those of the declared pregnant woman. The report shall be prepared so that this information is stated in a separate and detachable part of the report.

                C.            All licensees or registrants who make reports pursuant to Subsection A of this section shall submit the report in writing to the department.

[20.3.4.453 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.453 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.454             REPORTS OF PLANNED SPECIAL EXPOSURES:  The licensee or registrant shall submit a written report to the department within 30 days following any planned special exposure conducted in accordance with 20.3.4.410 NMAC, informing the department that a planned special exposure was conducted and indicating the date the planned special exposure occurred and the information required by 20.3.4.445 NMAC.

[20.3.4.454 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.454 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.455             REPORTS OF TRANSACTIONS INVOLVING NATIONALLY TRACKED SOURCES:  Each licensee who manufactures, transfers, receives, disassembles or disposes of a nationally tracked source (as defined in 20.3.4.7 NMAC) shall complete and submit a national source tracking transaction report as specified in Subsections A through E of this section for each type of transaction.

                A.            Each licensee who manufactures a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a national source tracking transaction report. The report must include the following information:

                                (1)           the name, address and license number of the reporting licensee;

                                (2)           the name of the individual preparing the report;

                                (3)           the manufacturer, model and serial number of the source;

                                (4)           the radioactive material in the source;

                                (5)           the initial source strength in becquerels (curies) at the time of manufacture; and

                                (6)           the manufacture date of the source.

                B.            Each licensee that transfers a nationally tracked source to another person shall complete and submit a national source tracking transaction report. The report must include the following information:

                                (1)           the name, address and license number of the reporting licensee;

                                (2)           the name of the individual preparing the report;

                                (3)           the name and license number of the recipient facility and the shipping address;

                                (4)           the manufacturer, model and serial number of the source or, if not available, other information to uniquely identify the source;

                                (5)           the radioactive material in the source;

                                (6)           the initial or current source strength in becquerels (curies);

                                (7)           the date for which the source strength is reported;

                                (8)           the shipping date;

                                (9)           the estimated arrival date; and

                                (10)         for nationally tracked sources transferred as waste under a uniform low-level radioactive waste manifest, the waste manifest number and the container identification of the container with the nationally tracked source.

                C.            Each licensee that receives a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a national source tracking transaction report. The report must include the following information:

                                (1)           the name, address and license number of the reporting licensee;

                                (2)           the name of the individual preparing the report;

                                (3)           the name, address and license number of the person that provided the source;

                                (4)           the manufacturer, model and serial number of the source or, if not available, other information to  uniquely identify the source;

                                (5)           the radioactive material in the source;

                                (6)           the initial or current source strength in becquerels (curies);

                                (7)           the date for which the source strength is reported;

                                (8)           the date of receipt; and

                                (9)           for material received under a uniform low-level radioactive waste manifest, the waste manifest number and the container identification with the nationally tracked source.

                D.            Each licensee that disassembles a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a national source tracking transaction report. The report must include the following information:

                                (1)           the name, address and license number of the reporting licensee;

                                (2)           the name of the individual preparing the report;

                                (3)           the manufacturer, model and serial number of the source or, if not available, other information to  uniquely identify the source;

                                (4)           the radioactive material in the source;

                                (5)           the initial or current source strength in becquerels (curies);

                                (6)           the date for which the source strength is reported; and

                                (7)           the disassemble date of the source.

                E.            Each licensee who disposes of a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a national source tracking transaction report. The report must include the following information:

                                (1)           the name, address and license number of the reporting licensee;

                                (2)           the name of the individual preparing the report;

                                (3)           the waste manifest number;

                                (4)           the container identification with the nationally tracked source;

                                (5)           the date of disposal; and

                                (6)           the method of disposal.

                F.            The reports discussed in Subsections A through E of this section must be submitted by the close of the next business day after the transaction. A single report may be submitted for multiple sources and transactions. The reports must be submitted to the national source tracking system by using:

                                (1)           the on-line national source tracking system;

                                (2)           electronically using a computer-readable format;

                                (3)           by facsimile;

                                (4)           by mail to the address on the national source tracking transaction report form (NRC form 748); or

                                (5)           by telephone with follow-up by facsimile or mail.

                G.            Each licensee shall correct any error in previously filed reports or file a new report for any missed transaction within 5 business days of the discovery of the error or missed transaction. Such errors may be detected by a variety of methods such as administrative reviews or by physical inventories required by regulation. In addition, each licensee shall reconcile the inventory of nationally tracked sources possessed by the licensee against that licensee’s data in the national source tracking system. The reconciliation must be conducted during the month of January in each year. The reconciliation process must include resolving any discrepancies between the national source tracking system and the actual inventory by filing the reports identified by Subsections A through E of this section. By January 31 of each year, each licensee must submit to the national source tracking system confirmation that the data in the national source tracking system is correct.

                H.            Each licensee that possesses category 1 nationally tracked sources shall report its initial inventory of category 1 nationally tracked sources to the national source tracking system by January 31, 2009. Each licensee that possesses category 2 nationally tracked sources shall report its initial inventory of category 2 nationally tracked sources to the national source tracking system by January 31, 2009. The information may be submitted by using any of the methods identified by Paragraph (1) through (4) of Subsection F of this section. The initial inventory report must include the following information:

                                (1)           the name, address and license number of the reporting licensee;

                                (2)           the name of the individual preparing the report;

                                (3)           the manufacturer, model and serial number of each nationally tracked source or, if not available, other information to uniquely identify the source;

                                (4)           the radioactive material in the sealed source;

                                (5)           the initial or current source strength in becquerels (curies); and

                                (6)           the date for which the source strength is reported.

[20.3.4.455 NMAC - N, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.456             REPORTS OF INDIVIDUAL MONITORING:

                A.            This section applies to each person licensed or registered by the department to:

                                (1)           possess or use sources of radiation for purposes of industrial radiography pursuant to 20.3.3 NMAC and 20.3.5 NMAC; or

                                (2)           receive radioactive waste from other persons for disposal pursuant to 20.3.13 NMAC; or

                                (3)           possess or use at any time, for processing or manufacturing for distribution pursuant to 20.3.3 NMAC or 20.3.7 NMAC, radioactive material in quantities exceeding any one of the following quantities:

TABLE 456.1

Radionuclide

Activity1

Curies

Gigabecquerels

Cesium-137

1

37

Cobalt-60

1

37

Gold-198

100

3,700

Iodine-131

1

37

Iridium-192

10

370

Krypton-85

1,000

37,000

Promethium-147

10

370

Technetium-99m

1,000

37,000

Table 456.1 note: 1the department may require as a license condition, or by rule, regulation or order pursuant to 20.3.1.111 NMAC, reports from licensees who are licensed to use radionuclides not on this list, in quantities sufficient to cause comparable radiation levels.

                B.            Each licensee or registrant in a category listed in Subsection A of this section shall submit an annual report of the results of individual monitoring carried out by the licensee or registrant for each individual for whom monitoring was required by 20.3.4.417 NMAC during that year. The licensee or registrant may include additional data for individuals for whom monitoring was provided but not required. The licensee or registrant shall use department form occupational dose record for a monitoring period or equivalent, or electronic media containing all the information required by department form occupational dose record for a monitoring period.

                C.            The licensee or registrant shall file the report required by Subsection B of this section, covering the preceding year, on or before April 30 of each year. The licensee or registrant shall submit the report to the department.

[20.3.4.456 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.456 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.457             NOTIFICATIONS AND REPORTS TO INDIVIDUALS OF EXCEEDING DOSE LIMITS:

                A.            Requirements for notification and reports to individuals of exposure to radiation or radioactive material are specified in 20.3.10.1003 NMAC.

                B.            When a licensee or registrant is required pursuant to the provisions of 20.3.4.453 NMAC or 20.3.4.454 NMAC to report to the department any exposure of an identified occupationally exposed individual, or an identified member of the public, to radiation or radioactive material, the licensee or registrant shall also provide a copy of the report submitted to the department to the individual. This report must be transmitted at a time not later than the transmittal to the department, and shall comply with the provisions of 20.3.10.1003 NMAC.

[20.3.4.457 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.457 NMAC, 04/30/2009; A, 06/30/2011]

 

20.3.4.458             REPORTS OF LEAKING OR CONTAMINATED SEALED SOURCES:  The licensee shall file a report within 5 days with the department if the test for leakage or contamination required pursuant to 20.3.4.415 NMAC indicates a sealed source is leaking or contaminated. The report shall include the equipment involved, the test results and the corrective action taken.

[20.3.4.458 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.458 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.459             VACATING PREMISES:  Each specific licensee shall, no less than 30 days before vacating or relinquishing possession or control of premises which may have been contaminated with radioactive material as a result of his activities, notify the department in writing of intent to vacate. When deemed necessary by the department, the licensee shall decontaminate the premises in such a manner as the department may specify.

[20.3.4.459 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.459 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.460             APPENDIX A - PROTECTION FACTORS FOR RESPIRATORS:  The assigned protection factors specified in this section apply only in a respiratory protection program that meets the requirements of this part. They are applicable only to airborne radiological hazards and may not be appropriate to circumstances when chemical or other respiratory hazards exist instead of, or in addition to, radioactive hazards. Selection and use of respirators for such circumstances shall also comply with department of labor regulations. Radioactive contaminants for which the concentration values in column 3 of table I of 20.3.4.461 NMAC are based on internal dose due to inhalation may, in addition, present external exposure hazards at higher concentrations. Under these circumstances, limitations on occupancy may have to be governed by external dose limits.

                A.            Air Purifying Respirators.

Configuration

(air purifying respirators only)

0B0B0BOperating Mode

1B1B1BAssigned Protection Factors

Filtering facepiece disposable.

(Refer to Paragraph (4) of this subsection.)

Negative Pressure

(Refer to Paragraph (4) of this subsection.)

Facepiece, half

(Refer to paragraph (5) of this subsection.)

Negative Pressure

10

Facepiece, full

Negative Pressure

100

Facepiece, half

Power air-purifying respirators

50

Facepiece, full

Power air-purifying respirators

1000

Helmet/hood

Power air-purifying respirators

1000

Facepiece, loose-fitting

Power air-purifying respirators

25

                                (1)           The assigned protection factors apply for protection against particulate only.

                                (2)           Air purifying respirators with APF <100 shall be equipped with particulate filters that are at least 95 percent efficient. Air purifying respirators with APF = 100 shall be equipped with particulate filters that are at least 99 percent efficient. Air purifying respirators with APFs >100 shall be equipped with particulate filters that are at least 99.97 percent efficient.

                                (3)           The licensee may apply to the department for the use of an APF greater than 1 for sorbent cartridges as protection against airborne radioactive gases and vapors (e.g., radioiodine).

                                (4)           Special requirements and indications for filtering facepiece disposable respirators. Licensees may permit individuals to use this type of respirator who have not been medically screened or fit tested on the device provided that no credit is taken for their use in estimating intake or dose. It is also recognized that it is difficult to perform an effective positive or negative pressure pre-use user seal check on this type of device. All other respiratory protection program requirements listed in 20.3.4.423 NMAC apply. An assigned protection factor has not been assigned for these devices. However, an APF equal to 10 may be used if the licensee can demonstrate a fit factor of at least 100 by use of a validated or evaluated, qualitative or quantitative fit test.

                                (5)           Special requirements and indications for half facepiece, negative pressure respirators. The requirements in this paragraph apply to the under-chin configuration only. No distinction is made in this section between elastomeric half-masks with replaceable cartridges and those designed with the filter medium as an integral part of the facepiece (e.g., disposable or reusable disposable). Both types are acceptable so long as the seal area of the latter contains some substantial type of seal-enhancing material such as rubber or plastic, the two or more suspension straps are adjustable, the filter medium is at least 95 percent efficient and all other requirements of this part are met.

                B.            Air-Line Respirators (Atmosphere Supplying).

Configuration

(air-line respirators only)

2B2B2BOperating Mode

3B3B3BAssigned Protection Factors

Facepiece, half

Demand

10

Facepiece, half

Continuous Flow

50

Facepiece, half

Pressure Demand

50

Facepiece, full

Demand

100

Facepiece, full

Continuous Flow

1000

Facepiece, full

Pressure Demand

1000

Helmet/hood

Continuous

1000

Facepiece, loose-fitting

Continuous

25

Suit

Continuous

(Refer to Paragraph (3) of this subsection.)

                                (1)           The assigned protection factors apply for protection against particulate, gases and vapors.

                                (2)           The assigned protection factors for gases and vapors are not applicable to radioactive contaminants that present an absorption or submersion hazard. For tritium oxide vapor, approximately one-third of the intake occurs by absorption through the skin so that an overall protection factor of 3 is appropriate when atmosphere-supplying respirators are used to protect against tritium oxide. Exposure to radioactive noble gases is not considered a significant respiratory hazard, and protective actions for these contaminants should be based on external (submersion) dose considerations.

                                (3)           Special requirements and indications for suits. No national institute for occupational safety and health (NIOSH) approval schedule is currently available for atmosphere supplying suits. This equipment may be used in an acceptable respiratory protection program as long as all the other minimum program requirements, with the exception of fit testing, are met (see 20.3.4.423 NMAC).

                C.            Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus “SCBA” (Atmosphere Supplying).

Configuration

(SCBA respirators only)

4B4B4BOperating Mode

5B5B5BAssigned Protection Factors

Facepiece, full

Demand

100 (Refer to Paragraph (3) of this subsection.)

Facepiece, full

Pressure Demand

10,000 (Refer to Paragraph (4) of this subsection.)

Facepiece, full

Demand-Recirculating

100 (Refer to Paragraph (3) of this subsection.)

Facepiece, full

Positive Pressure Recirculating

10,000 (Refer to Paragraph (4) of this subsection.)

                                (1)           The assigned protection factors apply for protection against particulate, gases and vapors.

                                (2)           The assigned protection factors for gases and vapors are not applicable to radioactive contaminants that present an absorption or submersion hazard. For tritium oxide vapor, approximately one-third of the intake occurs by absorption through the skin so that an overall protection factor of 3 is appropriate when atmosphere-supplying respirators are used to protect against tritium oxide. Exposure to radioactive noble gases is not considered a significant respiratory hazard, and protective actions for these contaminants should be based on external (submersion) dose considerations.

                                (3)           Special requirements and indications for demand and demand-recirculating self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). The licensee should implement institutional controls to assure that these devices are not used in areas immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH).

                                (4)           Special requirements and indications for pressure demand and positive pressure recirculating self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). This type of respirator may be used as an emergency device in unknown concentrations for protection against inhalation hazards. External radiation hazards and other limitations to permitted exposure such as skin absorption shall be taken into account in these circumstances. This device may not be used by any individual who experiences perceptible outward leakage of breathing gas while wearing the device.

                D.            Combination Respirators.

Configuration

(combination respirators only)

6B6B6BOperating Mode and Assigned Protection Factors

Any combination of air-purifying and atmosphere-supplying respirators

Assigned protection factor for type and mode of operation as listed above.

[20.3.4.460 NMAC - Rp, 20.3.4.460 NMAC, 04/30/2009]

 

20.3.4.461             APPENDIX B - ANNUAL LIMITS ON INTAKE (ALI) AND DERIVED AIR CONCENTRATIONS (DAC) OF RADIONUCLIDES FOR OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE; EFFLUENT CONCENTRATIONS; CONCENTRATIONS FOR RELEASE TO SANITARY SEWERAGE:

                A.            Introduction. For each radionuclide, table I of this section indicates the chemical form which is to be used for selecting the appropriate ALI or DAC value. The ALIs and DACs for inhalation are given for an aerosol with an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1 micrometer, and for three classes (D,W and Y) of radioactive material, which refer to their retention (approximately days, weeks or years) in the pulmonary region of the lung. This classification applies to a range of clearance half-times for D if less than 10 days, for W from 10 to 100 days and for Y greater than 100 days. The class (D,W or Y) given in the column headed "Class" applies only to the inhalation ALIs and DACs given in columns 2 and 3 of table I of this section. Table II of this section provides concentration limits for airborne and liquid effluents released to the general environment. Table III of this section provides concentration limits for discharges to sanitary sewerage.

                B.            Note. The values in tables I, II and III of this section are presented in the E-notation. In this notation a value of 6E-02 represents a value of 6x10-2 or 0.06, 6E+2 represents 6x102 or 600, and 6E+0 represents 6x100 or 6.

                C.            Table I "Occupational Values".

                                (1)           Note that the columns in table I of this section titled "Oral Ingestion ALI," "Inhalation ALI" and "DAC," are applicable to occupational exposure to radioactive material.

                                (2)           The ALI's in this section are the annual intakes of given radionuclide by "reference man" which would result in either a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (0.05 sievert) (stochastic ALI), or a committed dose equivalent of 50 rems (0.5 sievert) to an organ or tissue (non-stochastic ALI). The stochastic ALIs were derived to result in a risk, due to irradiation of organs and tissues, comparable to the risk associated with deep dose equivalent to the whole body of 5 rems (0.05 sievert). The derivation includes multiplying the committed dose equivalent to an organ or tissue by a weighting factor, wT. This weighting factor is the proportion of the risk of stochastic effects resulting from irradiation of the organ or tissue, T, to the total risk of stochastic effects when the whole body is irradiated uniformly. The values of wT are listed under the definition of weighting factor in 20.3.4.7 NMAC. The non-stochastic ALI's were derived to avoid non-stochastic effects, such as prompt damage to tissue or reduction in organ function.

                                (3)           A value of wT = 0.06 is applicable to each of the five organs or tissues in the "remainder" category receiving the highest dose equivalents, and the dose equivalents of all other remaining tissues may be disregarded. The following portions of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract - stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine and lower large intestine - are to be treated as four separate organs.

                                (4)           Note that the dose equivalents for an extremity, skin and lens of the eye are not considered in computing the committed effective dose equivalent, but are subject to limits that must be met separately.

                                (5)           When an ALI is defined by the stochastic dose limit, this value alone is given. When an ALI is determined by the non-stochastic dose limit to an organ, the organ or tissue to which the limit applies is shown, and the ALI for the stochastic limit is shown in parentheses. Abbreviated organ or tissue designations are used:

                                                (a)           LLI wall = lower large intestine wall;

                                                (b)           St wall = stomach wall;

                                                (c)           Blad wall = bladder wall; and

                                                (d)           Bone surf = bone surface.

                                (6)           The use of the ALI's listed first, the more limiting of the stochastic and non-stochastic ALI's, will ensure that non-stochastic effects are avoided and that the risk of stochastic effects is limited to an acceptably low value. If, in a particular situation involving a radionuclide for which the non-stochastic ALI is limiting, use of that non-stochastic ALI is considered unduly conservative, the licensee may use the stochastic ALI to determine the committed effective dose equivalent. However, the licensee shall also ensure that the 50 rems (0.5 sievert) dose equivalent limit for any organ or tissue is not exceeded by the sum of the external deep dose equivalent plus the internal committed dose equivalent to that organ, not the effective dose. For the case where there is no external dose contribution, this would be demonstrated if the sum of the fractions of the non-stochastic ALI's (ALIns) that contribute to the committed dose equivalent to the organ receiving the highest dose does not exceed unity, that is, the sum (intake in microcuries of each radionuclide/ALIns) is less than or equal to 1.0. If there is an external deep dose equivalent contribution of Hd, then this sum must be less than 1 - (Hd/50), instead of less than or equal to 1.0. Note that the dose equivalents for an extremity, skin and lens of the eye are not considered in computing the committed effective dose equivalent, but are subject to limits that must be met separately.

                                (7)           The derived air concentration (DAC) values are derived limits intended to control chronic occupational exposures. The relationship between the DAC and the ALI is given by:

                                                DAC = ALI (in microcuries) / (2000 hours per working year x 60 minutes/hour x 20000 milliliter per minute) = (ALI / 2.4 x 109 ml) microcuries/milliliter, where 20000 milliliter is the volume of air breathed per minute at work by reference man under working conditions of light work.

                                (8)           The DAC values relate to one of two modes of exposure: either external submersion or the internal committed dose equivalents resulting from inhalation of radioactive materials. DACs based upon submersion are for immersion in a semi-infinite cloud of uniform concentration and apply to each radionuclide separately.

                                (9)           The ALI and DAC values include contributions to exposure by the single radionuclide named and any in-growth of daughter radionuclides produced in the body by decay of the parent. However, intakes that include both the parent and daughter radionuclides should be treated by the general method appropriate for mixtures.

                                (10)         The values of ALI and DAC do not apply directly when the individual both ingests and inhales a radionuclide, when the individual is exposed to a mixture of radionuclides by either inhalation or ingestion or both, or when the individual is exposed to both internal and external irradiation (see 20.3.4.406 NMAC). When an individual is exposed to radioactive materials which fall under several of the translocation classifications of the same radionuclide, such as class D, class W or class Y, the exposure may be evaluated as if it were a mixture of different radionuclides.

                                (11)         It should be noted that the classification of a compound as class D, W or Y is based on the chemical form of the compound and does not take into account the radiological half-life of different radionuclides. For this reason, values are given for class D, W and Y compounds, even for very short-lived radionuclides.

                D.            Table II "Effluent Concentrations".

                                (1)           The columns in table II of this section titled "effluents," "air" and "water" are applicable to the assessment and control of dose to the public, particularly in the implementation of the provisions of 20.3.4.414 NMAC. The concentration values given in columns 1 and 2 of table II are equivalent to the radionuclide concentrations which, if inhaled or ingested continuously over the course of a year, would produce a total effective dose equivalent of 0.05 rem (0.5 millisievert).

                                (2)           Consideration of non-stochastic limits has not been included in deriving the air and water effluent concentration limits because non-stochastic effects are presumed not to occur at or below the dose levels established for individual members of the public. For radionuclides, where the non-stochastic limit was governing in deriving the occupational DAC, the stochastic ALI was used in deriving the corresponding airborne effluent limit in table II of this subsection. For this reason, the DAC and airborne effluent limits are not always proportional as was the case in appendix A of part D of the eighth edition of volume I of the suggested state regulations for control of radiation.

                                (3)           The air concentration values listed in column 1 of table II of this subsection were derived by one of two methods. For those radionuclides for which the stochastic limit is governing, the occupational stochastic inhalation ALI was divided by 2.4x109 milliliter, relating the inhalation ALI to the DAC, as explained above, and then divided by a factor of 300. The factor of 300 includes the following components: a factor of 50 to relate the 5 rems (0.05 sievert) annual occupational dose limit to the 0.1 rem (1 millisievert) limit for members of the public, a factor of 3 to adjust for the difference in exposure time and the inhalation rate for a worker and that for members of the public; and a factor of 2 to adjust the occupational values, derived for adults, so that they are applicable to other age groups.

                                (4)           For those radionuclides for which submersion, that is external dose, is limiting, the occupational DAC in column 3 of table I was divided by 219. The factor of 219 is composed of a factor of 50, as described above, and a factor of 4.38 relating occupational exposure for 2,000 hours per year to full-time exposure (8,760 hours per year). Note that an additional factor of 2 for age considerations is not warranted in the submersion case.

                                (5)           The water concentrations were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral ingestion ALI and dividing by 7.3x107. The factor of 7.3x107 milliliter includes the following components: the factors of 50 and 2 described above and a factor of 7.3x105 milliliter which is the annual water intake of reference man.

                                (6)           Note 2 of Subsection F of this section provides groupings of radionuclides which are applicable to unknown mixtures of radionuclides. These groupings, including occupational inhalation ALIs and DACs, air and water effluent concentrations and releases to sewer, require demonstrating that the most limiting radionuclides in successive classes are absent. The limit for the unknown mixture is defined when the presence of one of the listed radionuclides cannot be definitely excluded as being present either from knowledge of the radionuclide composition of the source or from actual measurements.

                E.            Table III "Releases to Sewers". The monthly average concentrations for release to sanitary sewerage are applicable to the provisions in 20.3.4.435 NMAC. The concentration values were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral ingestion ALI and dividing by 7.3x106 milliliter. The factor of 7.3x106 milliliter is composed of a factor of 7.3x105 milliliter, the annual water intake by reference man, and a factor of 10, such that the concentrations, if the sewage released by the licensee were the only source of water ingested by reference man during a year, would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 rem (5 millisieverts).

 

List of Elements and their Corresponding Atomic Numbers

 

Element

Atomic

Symbol

Atomic

Number

Actinium

Ac

89

Aluminum

Al

13

Americium

Am

95

Antimony

Sb

51

Argon

Ar

18

Arsenic

As

33

Astatine

At

85

Barium

Ba

56

Berkelium

Bk

97

Beryllium

Be

4

Bismuth

Bi

83

Bromine

Br

35

Cadmium

Cd

48

Calcium

Ca

20

Californium

Cf

98

Carbon

C

6

Cerium

Ce

58

Cesium

Cs

55

Chlorine

Cl

17

Chromium

Cr

24

Cobalt

Co

27

Copper

Cu

29

Curium

Cm

96

Dysprosium

Dy

66

Einsteinium

Es

99

Erbium

Er

68

Europium

Eu

63

Fermium

Fm

100

Fluorine

F

9

Francium

Fr

87

Gadolinium

Gd

64

Gallium

Ga

31

Germanium

Ge

32

Gold

Au

79

Hafnium

Hf

72

Holmium

Ho

67

Hydrogen

H

1

Indium

In

49

Iodine

I

53

Iridium

Ir

77

Iron

Fe

26

Krypton

Kr

36

Lanthanum

La

57

Lead

Pb

82

Lutetium

Lu

71

Magnesium

Mg

12

Manganese

Mn

25

Mendelevium

Md

101

Mercury

Hg

80

Molybdenum

Mo

42

Neodymium

Nd

60

Neptunium

Np

93

Nickel

Ni

28

Niobium

Nb

41

Nitrogen

N

7

Osmium

Os

76

Oxygen

O

8

Palladium

Pd

46

Phosphorus

P

15

Platinum

Pt

78

Plutonium

Pu

94

Polonium

Po

84

Potassium

K

19

Praseodymium

Pr

59

Promethium

Pm

61

Protactinium

Pa

91

Radium

Ra

88

Radon

Rn

86

Rhenium

Re

75

Rhodium

Rh

45

Rubidium

Rb

37

Ruthenium

Ru

44

Samarium

Sm

62

Scandium

Sc

21

Selenium

Se

34

Silicon

Si

14

Silver

Ag

47

Sodium

Na

11

Strontium

Sr

38

Sulfur

S

16

Tantalum

Ta

73

Technetium

Tc

43

Tellurium

Te

52

Terbium

Tb

65

Thallium

T1

81

Thorium

Th

90

Thulium

Tm

69

Tin

Sn

50

Titanium

Ti

22

Tungsten

W

74

Uranium

U

92

Vanadium

V

23

Xenon

Xe

54

Ytterbium

Yb

70

Yttrium

Y

39

Zinc

Zn

30

Zirconium

Zr

40

 


 

 

 

 

 

Table I

 

Occupational Values

 

Table II

Effluent

Concentrations

 

Table III

Releases

to Sewers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Col. 1

 

Col. 2

 

Col. 3

 

Col. 1

 

Col. 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oral

Ingestion

 

Inhalation

 

 

 

 

 

Monthly

Average

 

Atomic

   No.

 

 

Radionuclide

 

 

Class

 

ALI

(μCi)

 

ALI

(μCi)

 

DAC

(μCi/ml)

 

Air

(μCi/ml)

 

Water

(μCi/ml)

 

Concentration

(μCi/ml)

 

1

 

Hydrogen-3

 

Water, DAC includes   skin absorption

 

 

8E+4

 

 

8E+4

 

 

2E-5

 

 

1E-7

 

 

1E-3

 

 

1E-2

 

 

 

 

 

Gas (HT or T2) Submersion1:  Use above values as HT and T2 oxidize in air and in the body to

HTO.

 

4

 

Beryllium-7

 

W, all compounds except  those given for Y

Y, oxides, halides, and  nitrates

 

 

 

4E+4

 

-

 

 

 

2E+4

 

2E+4

 

 

 

9E-6

 

8E-6

 

 

 

3E-8

 

3E-8

 

 

 

6E-4

 

-

 

 

 

6E-3

 

-

 

4

 

Beryllium-10

 

W, see 7Be

 

 

 

Y, see 7Be

 

1E+3

LLI wall

(1E+3)

 

-

 

2E+2

 

-

 

1E+1

 

6E-8

 

-

 

6E-9

 

2E-10

 

-

 

2E-11

 

-

 

2E-5

 

-

 

-

 

2E-4

 

-

 

6

 

Carbon-112

 

Monoxide

Dioxide

Compounds

 

-

-

4E+5

 

1E+6

6E+5

4E+5

 

5E-4

3E-4

2E-4

 

2E-6

9E-7

6E-7

 

-

-

6E-3

 

-

-

6E-2

 

6

 

Carbon-14

 

Monoxide

Dioxide

Compounds

 

-

-

2E+3

 

2E+6

2E+5

2E+3

 

7E-4

9E-5

1E-6

 

2E-6

3E-7

3E-9

 

-

-

3E-5

 

-

-

3E-4

 

7

 

Nitrogen-132

 

Submersion1

 

-

 

-

 

4E-6

 

2E-8

 

-

 

-

 

8

 

Oxygen-152

 

Submersion1

 

-

 

-

 

4E-6

 

2E-8

 

-

 

-

 

9

 

Fluorine-182

 

D, fluorides of H, Li,

Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr

 

 

W, fluorides of Be, Mg,

Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, Al, Ga,

In, Tl, As, Sb, Bi, Fe,

Ru, Os, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt,

Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd,          Hg, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, V,   Nb, Ta, Mn, Tc, and Re

Y, lanthanum fluoride

 

 

5E+4

St wall

(5E+4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

 

 

7E+4

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

9E+4

8E+4

 

 

3E-5

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

4E-5

3E-5

 

 

1E-7

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

1E-7

1E-7

 

 

-

 

7E-4

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

 

 

-

 

7E-3

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

 

11

 

Sodium-22

 

D, all compounds

 

4E+2

 

6E+2

 

3E-7

 

9E-10

 

6E-6

 

6E-5

 

11

 

Sodium-24

 

D, all compounds

 

4E+3

 

5E+3

 

2E-6

 

7E-9

 

5E-5

 

5E-4

 

12

 

Magnesium-28

 

D, all compounds except

   those given for W

W, oxides, hydroxides,

   carbides, halides, and

   nitrates

 

 

7E+2

 

 

-

 

 

2E+3

 

 

1E+3

 

 

7E-7

 

 

5E-7

 

 

2E-9

 

 

2E-9

 

 

9E-6

 

 

-

 

 

9E-5

 

 

-

 

13

 

Aluminum-26

 

D, all compounds except

   those given for W

W, oxides, hydroxides,

   carbides, halides and

   nitrates

 

 

4E+2

 

 

-

 

 

6E+1

 

 

9E+1

 

 

3E-8

 

 

4E-8

 

 

9E-11

 

 

1E-10

 

 

6E-6

 

 

-

 

 

6E-5

 

 

-

 

14

 

Silicon-31

 

D, all compounds except

   those given for W and Y

W, oxides, hydroxides,

   carbides, and nitrates

Y, aluminosilicate glass

 

 

9E+3

 

-

-

 

 

3E+4

 

3E+4

3E+4

 

 

1E-5

 

1E-5

1E-5

 

 

4E-8

 

5E-8

4E-8

 

 

1E-4

 

-

-

 

 

1E-3

 

-

-

 

14

 

Silicon-32

 

D, see31Si

 

 

W, see31Si

Y, see31Si

 

2E+3

LLI wall

(3E+3)

-

-

 

2E+2

 

-

1E+2

5E+0

 

1E-7

 

-

5E-8

2E-9

 

3E-10

 

-

2E-10

7E-12

 

-

 

4E-5

-

-

 

-

 

4E-4

-

-

 

15

 

Phosphorus-32

 

D, all compounds except

   phosphates given for W

W, phosphates of Zn2+,

   S3+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Bi3+,

   and Lanthanides

 

 

6E+2

 

 

-

 

 

9E+2

 

 

4E+2

 

 

4E-7

 

 

2E-7

 

 

1E-9

 

 

5E-10

 

 

9E-6

 

 

-

 

 

9E-5

 

 

-

 

15

 

Phosphorus-33

 

D, see 32p

W, see 32p

 

6E+3

-

 

8E+3

3E+3

 

4E-6

1E-6

 

1E-8

4E-9

 

8E-5

-

 

8E-4

-

 

16

 

Sulfur-35

 

Vapor

D, sulfides and sulfates

   except those given for

   W

 

 

 

W, elemental sulfur,

   sulfides of Sr, Ba, Ge,

   Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Cu,

   Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, W,

   and Mo.

Sulfates of Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra,

   As, Sb, and Bi

 

-

 

 

1E+4

LLI wall

(8E+3)

 

 

 

 

 

6E+3

 

-

 

1E+4

 

 

2E+4

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

2E+3

 

6E-6

 

 

7E-6

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

9E-7

 

2E-8

 

 

2E-8

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

3E-9

 

-

 

 

-

 

1E-4

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

 

-

 

1E-3

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

-

 

17

 

Chlorine-36

 

D, chlorides of H, Li, Na,

K, Rb, Cs, and Fr

W, chlorides of

Lanthanides, Be, Mg,

Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, Al, Ga,

In, Tl, Ge, Sn, Pb, As,

Sb, Bi, Fe, Ru, Os, Co,

Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu,

Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Sc,

Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta,

Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Tc, and

Re

 

 

2E+3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

2E+3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2E+2

 

 

1E-6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1E-7

 

 

3E-9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3E-10

 

 

2E-5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

2E-4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

17

 

Chlorine-382

 

D, see 36Cl

 

 

W, see 36Cl

 

2E+4

St wall

(3E+4)

-

 

4E+4

 

-

5E+4

 

2E-5

 

-

2E-5

 

6E-8

 

-

6E-8

 

-

 

3E-4

-

 

-

 

3E-3

-

 

17

 

Chlorine-392

 

D, see 36Cl

 

 

W, see 36Cl

 

2E+4

St wall

(4E+4)

-

 

5E+4

 

-

6E+4

 

2E-5

 

-

2E-5

 

7E-8

 

-

8E-8

 

-

 

5E-4

-

 

-

 

5E-3

-

 

18

 

Argon-37

 

Submersion1

 

-

 

-

 

1E+0

 

6E-3

 

-

 

-

 

18

 

Argon-39

 

Submersion1

 

-

 

-

 

2E-4

 

8E-7

 

-

 

-

 

18

 

Argon-41

 

Submersion1

 

-

 

-

 

3E-6

 

1E-8

 

-

 

-

 

19

 

Potassium-40

 

D, all compounds

 

3E+2

 

4E+2

 

2E-7

 

6E-10

 

4E-6

 

4E-5

 

19

 

Potassium-42

 

D, all compounds

 

5E+3

 

5E+3

 

2E-6

 

7E-9

 

6E-5

 

6E-4

 

19

 

Potassium-43

 

D, all compounds

 

6E+3

 

9E+3

 

4E-6

 

1E-8

 

9E-5

 

9E-4

 

19

 

Potassium-442

 

D, all compounds

 

2E+4

St wall

(4E+4)

 

7E+4

 

-

 

3E-5

 

-

 

9E-8

 

-

 

-

 

5E-4

 

-

 

5E-3

 

19